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Mold slag (or mold
flux) entrainment, also called entrapment was characterized by mold powder
being drawn into the molten steel pool inside a continuous casting mold was
simulated  by adding black sesame beads
into the mold from top during experimentation. Mold slag entrainment can cause
surface as well as internal defects in the final product if the entrained
droplets trapped in the solidifying metal. Black
sesame beads were used to simulate slag entrapment in a 70*1680 mm mold at
casting speed of 5 m/min. The beads were distributed symmetrically between the
front and back side on the model and left and right side of SEN. During the
experimentation it was observed that the flow is directed from the narrow faces
towards the SEN. This resulted in transportation of sesame beads to SEN area
and severe entrainment in the SEN area (between the front and back side of SEN)
was observed due to formulation of vortexes in that region. Vortices were
observed to form both one at a time and in pair as seen in Fig 6. Asymmetric
flow between sides of the mold is the source of flow through the narrow gap
between the SEN and mold walls that causes vortices that entrain slag, as shown
in Figure 6. Similar observation were made by Gebhard  et  al.1
, which also reported the existence of energetic vortices formed very close to
the SEN due to  the  existence 
of  biased  upper 
roll  flows  in  the
mold. When the liquid steel reaches the funnel position, it gets decelerated in
the enlarged section. This may induces a flow with possible intermittent vortex
generation front and back side of SEN, which ultimately results into
entrainment of both mold powder and non-metallic inclusions deep into the mold.
These vortices can entrain slag that becomes entrapped between the dendrites on
the wide face near the SEN, leading to a sharp increase in the number of
surface defects in the center of the slabs

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