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2.3 Festival and
satisfaction

Satisfaction researches have
shown that satisfaction specifies consumers’ overall evaluation on how they
perceive their consumption experience of a product or service (Fornell,
Johnson, Anderson, Cha & Bryant, 1996; Mason & Paggiaro, 2012).  Tourists’ satisfaction, reflecting overall
satisfaction, has frequently been used to investigate the casual relationship between
festival attributes and satisfaction in the festival context (Yoon et al.,
2010; Akhoondnejad; 2016; Lee, 2016; Harrington, et al., 2017; Yürük et al., 2017). 
Such studies have demonstrated that tourists’ satisfaction with festival
experience is a key element to identify why satisfaction is important to the festival
and it is closely related to the satisfaction with the overall
destination.  Mason and Paggiaro (2012)
emphasised that the element of a high level customer satisfaction had a big pivotal
role in causing a major concern of managing any business, in return, establishing
long-term relationships with tourists (Grappi & Montanari, 2011).  The effects of ‘programme content’ on
festival attribute were noteworthy and the ‘programme content’ was
significantly associated with satisfaction and also it promoted repeated
attendees (Grappi
& Montanari, 2011; Lee, Lee, & Choi, 2011).  The
dimension of the programme was the most crucial aspect which influenced tourists’
satisfaction (Yoon et al., 2010).  Saleh
and Ryan (1993) found that the programme quality was the significant antecedent
in attracting attendees to a jazz and handcrafts festivals.  The factor of ‘access to the destination’
under the dimension of tourism infrastructure was considered to be important in
selecting the tourist destination (Mussalam & Tajeddini, 2016).   Yoon et al. (2010) categorized six
dimensions (e.g., informational service, programme, souvenir, food, facility
and festival value) to measure ‘festival quality’ and ‘value’ and how those
dimensions influenced visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty and as a result, they
proved that all the dimensions of ‘programme’ (e.g., program was funny, and
program was varied), souvenirs (e.g., souvenirs were varied), ‘food’ (e.g.,
food was varied, and food price was reasonable) and ‘facilities’ (e.g.,
restroom was clean, and parking facility was convenient) were significantly
related to ‘satisfaction’ (e.g., overall, I am satisfied with the festival, and
as a whole, I am happy with the festival) except the dimension of ‘informational
service’ (e.g., pre-informational service enabled me to have a good knowledge
of festival programme and schedule) which was found to be the less important
factor in explaining the relationship between festival attributes and attendees’
satisfaction in the festival context. 
However, this study included the dimension of ‘informational service’ as
most visitors do not clearly know about the religion of Taegeukdo and how
Gamcheon culture village was formed based on the Taegeukdo that are excluded by
other social members regarding the experience booths with the works of artists
which can be very difficult to find due to the complicated alleyways.  Thus the factors of ‘pre-informational
service gave sufficient information about the festival programme and schedule’
(Yoon et al., 2010), ‘experiential festival to understand local culture’ (Yoon
& Uysal, 2005; Chi & Qu, 2008; Hsu et al., 2014; Mussalam &
Tajeddini, 2016), and ‘festival staff provided good guide service’ (Yoon et
al., 2010) were an important indicator to examine the relationship with
satisfaction.  In addition, Akhoondnejad
(2016) examined how festival authenticity, festival quality, and festival value
impacted the satisfaction with festival, trust in festival and loyalty to
festival and the results of the study demonstrated that festival authenticity
(e.g., local staff), festival quality (e.g., clean environment), festival value
(e.g., festival value) had a positive relationship with satisfaction with
festival (e.g., pleasure).  In this
regard, previous empirical researches of festival satisfaction was regarded and
the overall satisfaction which builds on the total consumer experience revealed positive relationships between festival
attributes and satisfaction hence this study has implemented the theoretical
framework of the casual relationship between the festival attributes and
satisfaction. Thus, the following hypotheses were proposed:

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H1. Programme and food attributes positively influence
satisfaction with festival.

H2. Facility and infrastructure attributes positively
influence satisfaction with festival.

H3. Informational service attribute positively
influences satisfaction with festival.

 

2.4 Satisfaction and loyalty

Customer loyalty is defined as “deeply held commitment
to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in the
future, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the
potential to cause switching behavior” (Lee & Back, 2008, p.338).  It has been clearly established why market
research feeds into building customer loyalty with their existing customers in
previous literature and identified the importance of customer loyalty in the
aspect of constituting a desirable stable revenue source (Zeithaml, Berry, & Parasuraman, 1996).  The area of festival is not an exception to this
general rule.  Supporting this, there is
a very clear evidence: “low switching behavior to competitors, less cost to
retain loyal consumers than to create new ones, willingness to pay a price
premium, and positive word-of–mouth advertising (Lee, Lee, & Yoon, 2009, p. 692).  A
number of festival researches demonstrated that customer loyalty was a
significant indicator of visitors’ intentions to revisit and recommend the
specific destination (Chi & Qu, 2008; Yoon et al., 2010; Chang &
Gibson, 2015; Akhoondnejad, 2016; Tanford & Jung, 2017; Yürük et al., 2017). 
Satisfaction strengthens loyalty (Fornell, et al., 1996) therefore the trend of marketing literatures conducted researches
to understand the relationship between
satisfaction and loyalty through the specific festival and did not only focus on
the single side of satisfaction or loyalty in the context of festival
management (Chi & Qu, 2008; Yoon et
al., 2010; Akhoondnejad, 2016; Tanford & Jung, 2017; Yürük et al., 2017). 
Satisfied attendees tend to have more intentions to revisit the same
festival annually and to recommend the festival to other people such as family
and friends (Drummond & Annderson, 2011). That is, the attendees’ behaviour
contributes to economic impacts of the festival including the local community
thus concerning the dimension of satisfaction and loyalty has been reported to
have a positive relationship and both are very significant determinants to
understand the attendees’ behaviour from the view of festival planners (Yoon et
al., 2010).  Measuring loyalty was
addressed by examining the relationships between destination image,
attribute/overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty from conceptual and empirical
standpoints and found that
satisfaction affected the attendees’ loyalty (e.g., revisit intention, and
recommend intention) (Chi & Qu, 2008). 
Akhoondnejad (2016) tested the relationship among festival authenticity
(e.g., unique products, and unique festival), festival quality (e.g., clean
environment, and sufficient facilities), festival value (e.g., value for time,
and value for effort), satisfaction (e.g., pleasure, and right decision), trust
(e.g., confidence, and belief) and loyalty (e.g., revisit intention, and
recommend intention) by applying structural equation modelling.  The findings showed that festival value had
an impact on satisfaction and loyalty and the satisfaction with festival had a
significant relationship with loyalty. 
Yoon et al. (2010) found that quality dimensions influenced perceived
value and whether the quality dimensions impacted satisfaction and the loyalty was
a result of this satisfaction by using the structural equation model.  The results of the research found that festival
quality dimensions (e.g., programme, souvenirs, food, and facilities) had an
impact on perceived value, these attributes had a significant positive
relationship with visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty (e.g., I will keep
attending the festival, and I will recommend the festival to my friends and
neighbors).  Another research showed that
the programme, activities, and festival atmosphere were the most significant festival
attributes of satisfaction and loyalty (Tanford & Jung, 2017) and they also
revealed that there was a positive relationship between festival satisfaction
with festival loyalty (e.g., encourage, recommend, and revisit intention).  Yürük et al. (2017) confirmed that the social
impacts (e.g., community benefits, and quality of life concerns) of events on
attendees’ satisfaction, in turn, influenced attendees’ loyalty from the
empirical study and a significant positive direct relationship was found
between satisfaction and loyalty (e.g., I will keep attending the Kirkpinar oil
wrestling festival, and I will keep attending the Kirkpinar oil festival) which
indicated that satisfied attendants and enhanced loyalty was crucial for a
festival to succeed.  Lee (2016)
demonstrated that there was a significant relationship between government
policy and attendees’ loyalty and it appeared that government policy directly
influenced attendees’ loyalty (e.g., I will keep attending the festival if it
is held again in the future, and I will recommend this festival to my relatives
and friends) and also government policy indirectly had an impact on attendees’
loyalty through the mediators of environment quality and satisfaction.  Previous literature in relation to the casual
relationship between satisfaction and loyalty in the festival context suggested
that it was very important for destination planners to invest in festival
resources which would lead to more enticing attendees to go to the festival, as
this showed that they had a better understanding of the attendees’ behaviour on
why they revisit or keep attending the festival every year.  In order to examine satisfied attendees and
their significant relationship with loyalty which was enhanced by the attendees’
experiences to a given alleyways festival of Gamcheon culture village, the following
hypothesis was proposed:

 

H4. Satisfaction with festival positively influences
loyalty to festival.

 

Drawing on the above literature, this study aimed to
evaluate the relationships among festival attributes, satisfaction and loyalty
to alleyways festival of Gamcheon culture village. Fig. 5 depicts the
hypotheses of the research model. 

 

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