3. Robbins, S., Coulter, M. and Descanso, D. (2012). Fundamentals of management. 12th ed.
2. YouTube. (2018). Ford and Taylor Scientific Management (Edited). online Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PdmNbqtDdI
1. Taylor, F. (1911). The Principles of Scientific Management. 1st ed.
An example of scientific management, ford’s classic case, today the great accomplishment of ford motor company, cannot leave the ford motor company founder Henry Ford’s scientific management. In 1910, ford began an experiment in factory automation at a new factory in highland park. He led a group of highly effective experts to review every link on the assembly line and try to improve productivity. His most important breakthrough was the Gantt chart. Created the world’s first automobile assembly line, realized the mechanization of big industrial, greatly improving the labor productivity, high efficiency, low cost, high wages and highly profitable situation. In 1914, Ford announced an eight-hour wage of $5 (not $2.34), twice the normal salary of a skilled worker. Ford thought: this way, the workers who make cars can be the owners of cars. Tens of thousands of people poured into ford’s highland park plant after announcing a $5 workday, applying for work despite the cold weather and harsh weather. Henry Ford started a new era, his unique automobile production line, as the management idea of public service, on the one hand, brought profit, on the other hand, changed the American consumption concept, from then on, the United States entered the automobile kingdom.
As said or narrated above, these are some of my insights and opinions. But as Drucker said, the essence of management lies not in knowledge, but in practice; the validity of verification management is not the logic, but the result. More, it is the seamless connection between the framework and the enterprise through day to day deliberate practice and minor improvements.
In fact, it includes supervision, comparison and correction. Specifically, that is to say, whether the actual implementation of the monitoring is deviated from the plan (supervision) and the specific deviation (comparison). Then, the organization and execution will be brought back to the right track.
Personally, I think this is the most technical part of management, and it is the core competitiveness of enterprise management. In the management of a team, started is not independent of the management authority (instruction), and then with the team members continue to mature, in the way of cooperation and common development to guide him out of the team, so the choice of how to achieve the goal (cooperation); and then allow team members to set their own goals, and team management will play a supporting role (coach); finally, direct negotiation goals, fully delegated to the team members.
l Assigning subordinates and empowerment to the person in charge.
l Assignment of categories and heads for tasks.
l Assign specific tasks for individuals.
l Assignment of tasks for the team.
It can be understood as how to manage human resources on the premise that internal customers (employees) and external customers (consumers) are satisfied with the implementation of the plan, including:
l How much (how much is the cost, budget?)
l How many (to what extent do you want to do?)
l How (how?)
l Which (what else do you have in addition to doing that?)
l Why (why?)
l Who (who is in charge, who is involved?)
l Where (where to do it)
l When (when the plan is completed)
l What (what do you want to make)
Before discussing the impact of management theory on the case of display. Let me first come to a brief summary of what is management. In a word, management is divided into several main parts: plan, organization, leadership and control.
In the period, beginning in the 1940 s, with the science and technology into productivity unceasingly, the scale of the enterprise is more and more huge, organization and external links, within the organizational structure and the relationship between the members of the organization is increasingly complicated. During the period of the scientific management, the person is just an “economic” existence, and in behavioral science times, a group of management scholars began to pay attention to, from the perspective of the relationship between people study the behavior of individuals and groups, people put forward is not only a rational being, and is a perceptual existence. During this period, I chose Mayo’s interpersonal organization theory and Hertzberg’s organizational motivation theory as an example. The idea that, by leadership and participation for over a decade of “Hawthorne,” he criticized the Taylor in the years of scientific management, he believed that technology and material interests had played a huge role in the wild stage of industrial development, but in the industrial age, the natural instincts of the people to work together would be developed, and the people in the organization were not simply “agents of the economy,” they were “social people,” and the cooperation of the people would be expressed through the organization. Hertzberg is a prominent psychologist and management scientist who, through a survey of hundreds of workers in the neighborhood of Pittsburgh, puts forward “motivational – health” twin factors on members of the organization based on the theoretical basis of the needs of predecessors. Through the analysis of traditional organization incentive theory, the paper puts forward a new incentive approach to job enrichment. In the Pittsburgh investigator’s eyes, there are two kinds of people in the world: people who have the essence of Adam, who seek to be satisfied by avoiding not being satisfied. What they want is “work hygiene”, which will lead to dissatisfaction. The other is a man who has the essence of Abraham, and the way they seek to satisfy it is to pursue the growth factor, and the lack of these factors can lead to dissatisfaction.
To sum up, the organizational theories of different periods have different purposes and meanings, and different scholars have their own opinions. Let me show you two examples. Along with the process of modernization, the first 30 years of the 20th century, large enterprises have mushroomed, management disorder problem also highlights the growing, gradually to the monopoly market, strengthen the government’s macro-regulation, organizational issues are also beginning to attract the attention of the experts and scholars. During this period, I selected the representative character of the school of scientific management and the representative of the school of bureaucracy. Although there is no specific discussion on the organizational theory, it is impossible to avoid the problem of organization. Taylor’s scientific management theory mainly in order to solve the problem of enterprise work efficiency is low, argues that separate the management function and operation functions instead of the old workers choose their homework before, and the functions of management specialization, advocate the prominent function in the organization plan, put forward the senior managers to decentralized authority to subordinate managers as far as possible, only for exceptional items with the exception of decision and control principle. According to Weber, any kind of organization is only on the basis of some form of power, his willpower is divided into three types: legal power, the power of the traditional and supernatural power, and that only the legal power to become the basis of administrative organization, answered the problem of “why people follow authority”, this paper elaborates on the features of the bureaucratic organization structure and social function.
The purpose of organization theory can be explored through the combination of history and logic. From the history of organizational theory, it is not hard to see that the organizational theory of each period has its own characteristics. So, you want to explore its roots. It is necessary to understand the social, economic and technological background of each period, as well as the historical significance of the theory. The second is to understand every period of organization theory to solve problems, different periods to solve specific problems must be different, but the research content is common, the elements of a theory of research to grasp the connection between the different period theory, find out the logic of its development and regularity.
3 purpose of organization theory
To understand the concept of organizational theory deeply and to explore its purpose, the organization must be defined first. Vic a. Thompson believes that the organization is “A highly rational, non-personal entity, with A large number of experts working together to achieve certain goals that are publicly announced.” Barnard’s definition of an organization is “a system of individual actions or forces that are composed of at least two people, consciously working together.” Bucky is pointed out that the organization is a continuous system, there is a clear division of labor and cooperation of human behavior, use, transform, and the combination of a series of specific human capital and natural resources, human material, making it a unique and can solve the problem of the whole, in order to meet in a specific environment and other human behavior and resource system of special human needs “. Gross and the definition of organization strategy, the more common, they think, “organization, is the human, in order to achieve some common goal and specially constructed social units, enterprises, army, school, church, and prisons are an organization”. Scholars view the different perspectives of organizations and give different definitions. I on the above definition is put together, organization of human society is in a certain environment, the interaction of the individual or group to achieve certain goals, functions, and powers according to certain relations, through a certain structure, formed by the environmental adaptation and transformation have clear boundaries, growing organic entity.
2 Definition of organization
In terms of content, there is no consensus on the content of organizational theory. Because it involves a wide range of content, including: organizational goals, value systems, organizational structure; Formal organization and informal organization and its relations; The motivation, communication and control process of the members; Power, authority and influence; Group behavior and individual behavior; Management strategies and techniques; System components and their interrelationships; Balance of organization and environment; Organizational stability and development, etc. In general, the survival, adaptation and development of organization theory research organization, it combines administrative science, political science, sociology, anthropology, social psychology, the research achievements of philosophy, economics and other disciplines.
The development process of organization theory shows that the change of management thought and research methods, research experiences from a focus on “things” to “people” of the research, development and research to the people and things both in methodology to empirical research from normative research. The formation and development of organization theory is the result of human understanding of organization and its activities, so that people can consciously apply this theory to effectively manage organizations to adapt themselves to organizational activities. The inadequacy of organizational theory lies in the lack of a unified conceptual framework and core content. Some scholars have different opinions about whether organizational theory is a subject or not.
From the perspective of theoretical development, in the early twentieth Century, organizational theory generally went through three stages: traditional organization theory, behavioral science organization theory and system management theory. The traditional organizational theory was prevalent in the 10~30 years of twentieth Century. It focuses on the analysis of the organization structure and general principles of organization and management. The research contents mainly involve organization’s goals, division of labor, coordination, power relations, responsibilities, organization efficiency, authorization, management scope and level, centralization and decentralization. Representative: put forward the bureaucracy theory M. Weber, put forward the general management theory H. Farrell, put forward the scientific management theory F.W. Taylor. Although Taylor’s scientific management is mainly applicable to enterprise organization, its organizational management thought profoundly affects the research of administrative organization management and administrative theory. In addition, the American scholar L. Uric and spread the traditional organization and comprehensive theory views and ideas, expand the influence of the traditional organization theory. After the 1930s, the organization theory with an interpersonal relationship as the research focus was developed, and gradually developed into the theory of behavioral science organization. Against the theory of the traditional organization theory of the static research method, focus on human and organizational activities, such as group and individual behavior, the relationship between people and organizations, communication, participation, motivation, leadership, etc. Hosted by American scholar G.E. Mayo and the Hawthorne, c. Barnard equilibrium theory, H.A. Simon’s administrative decision-making theory, a. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the typical behavior science theory of organization.
Organizational theory refers to the theory that human affairs are arranged in a certain form in the activities of social organization. Organization is composed of more than two people, in order to achieve common goals, in a certain form to be compiled. With the increasing complexity of social division of labor, the organization activities of human society are becoming more and more diverse, such as administrative organizations, business and business organizations, cultural and educational organizations.
1 Introductions of organizational theory
In this article, I will explain the organizational theory and its three stages of development: modernist, symbolic interpretive and postmodern. After that, I will discuss and solve two questions: First, how to understand the organization, and second, the purpose of organizing the theory. Finally, discuss the relevance of this theory and its impact on today.