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a)
Eutrophication

Eutrophication or more
precisely hypertrophication, is a water body enriched with
nutrients,with an excess amount of it.Certain nutrients are needed for survival of the
living thing.Primarily,nature is efficient enough to provide right amount of
nutrients,not less nor too much. This is absolutely true in aquatic ecosystems
because they are so dynamic.Water will be oligotrophic if there is too much
nutrient.
Consequently,serious problems will occur if there is no nutrients in the
aquatic environment of the organisms.However,
problems can also occur when there is too much nutrients too. When this occur
we get eutrophication. A eutrophic stream, river or lake occurs when too many nutrients,such
as nitrogen and phosphorous, are present, usually as a result of overflow of
the land. Algae, plankton and other microorganisms attracted to these types of
nutrients, and when they are too much these aquatic organisms can take over.
When eutrophication occurs in a lake, river or other aquatic system,it gives a
negative impact on the organisms itself including humans,birds and fishes.

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b)
Deforestation

Clearing of trees or removal
of trees from the forest to make it into non-forest is called deforestation and
it is also used for urban development.Conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use are also examples
of deforestation.Tropical rainforests are the most common
deforestation area.One of the largest and severe issue in global land is none
other than deforestation. Croplands and grazing lands are estimated area
regarding deforestation which includes cutting down trees for wood products and
so on due to urban usage.Due to this,whole forest is no more and wiped out due
to no more trees left in the forest. In some cases,forest structure would be
altered if illegal logging and so called accidental fire occurs.The practice
of slash-and-burn agriculture is
the major contributor for deforestation.Small-scale farmers clear land produces
for only a few years and then must forests by burning them and then grow crops
in the soils fertilized by the
ashes.In Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, tropical Africa, and the Americas
for permanent oil palm plantations practice
open fire burning to clear out the forests.

 

 

c) Global Warming

The
observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system and
its related effects called Global warming commonly known as climate change,The increase of average world temperatures as a result of
what is known as the greenhouse effect is global warming too. In
greenhouse,certain gases in the atmosphere acts like glass, sunlight is allowed
to heat the earth’s surface but it radiates back to the space if we trap the
heat. The Earth gets hotter when the greenhouse gases build up in the
atmosphere.Consequently,this phenomena is called climate change.Since
the mid-20th century the Scientist have gathered detailed observations of
various weather phenomena
(such as temperatures, precipitation,
and storms) and of related influences on climate (such
as ocean
currents and the atmosphere’s chemical composition).
Earth’s climate indicated that it has changed
over almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of time and that
the influence of human activities
since at least the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution has been deeply contributed to the climate
change.

d) Ozone depletion

Ozone is very important
and crucial to us and gives us the pros and cons.As
a result of many chemical reaction regarding air pollution which caused by
heavy traffic and UV light formed ozone near the ground which eventually caused
a lot of respiratory problems particularly for children and the elderly.However,the stratosphere,
ozone filters out incoming radiation from the Sun in the cell-damaging ultraviolet (UV)
part of the spectrum are known as high up in the atmosphere in a region.Life on
earth would not have evolved in the way it has without this ozone layer.
Single-celled organisms such as algae that
make up the bottom rung of the food chain inhibits the reproductive cycle of
phytoplankton with the help of extra UV B radiation shone onto Earth.The only
thing fears the Biologist is that reductions in other animals due to low number
of phytoplankton..Excess ultraviolet B.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals
found mainly in spray
aerosols heavily
used by industrialized nations for much of the past 50 years, are the primary
culprits in ozone layer breakdown which ultimately causes the change in the reproductive
rates of young fish, shrimp, and crabs as well as frogs and salamanders.UV
breaks down into substance such as chlorine due to CFC in the upper atmosphere
exposed to UV.Chlorine reacts with the oxygen particle and tears down the ozone.

e)
Pollution

When pollutants contaminate the natural
surroundings; which changes our normal lifestyles quickly is called pollution.Our
ecosystem and the balance in the environment are disturbed due to pollution. Pollution
occurs in Different forms of pollution can be found such as air, water, soil,
radioactive, noise, heat/ thermal and light.There are two sources of pollution
occurrence; the point and the non-point sources.The non-point sources are hard
to control whereas the point sources are easier to identify,monitor and control.Firstly,Air pollution
is a contamination of natural air with dangerous gases.It is one of the major
contributor to environmental pollution.  Land
pollution occurs due to excess of dumping of toxic waste. This can be a
chemical or other waste material.Sound pollution called
as noise pollution is a disturbance of silent environment with loud
noises.Radiation pollution is the pollution due to abnormal
radiation in the environment. This occurs due to use of radioactive elements
from atomic energy stations.Thermal pollution arises because
of excess heat from thermal power plants,
industries involved in metal molding.Water pollution is mainly about
harmful toxic substances thrown by ignorant humans or released as residue by
irresponsible companies.In other cases,ships release their unwanted oil into
the sea.

f) Acid deposition

Any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, elevated levels of hydrogen ions
(low pH) is known as Acid
deposition.Plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure had negative impacts due
to acid deposition.Emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with
the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce
acids is called acid deposition.Wet and dry are the two types of deposition.Rain, snow, fog, hail
or even dust that is acidic are included in the type of acid deposition.Dry deposition consist of acidic
particles and gases from atmosphere in the absence of moisture.During
atmospheric the acidic particles and gases may deposit to surfaces (water
bodies, vegetation, buildings) quickly or may react to form larger particles
that can be harmful to human health. This acidic water flows over and through
the ground, and can harm plants and wildlife, such as insects and fish when the
accumulated acids are washed off a surface by the next rain.The amount of
rainfall an area receives depends on the  amount of acidity in the atmosphere that
deposits to earth through dry deposition.For instance,the ratio of dry to wet
deposition is higher than an area that receives several inches of rain each year
in the desert areas.

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