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A hybrid system has use in various different and
combination of geothermal resources with outdoor air is known as cooling tower.
Hybrid ways are particularly compare with cooling it will uses much larger area
for heating purpose. In this variation of an open-loop system, one or more deep
vertical wells are drilled. Water is drawn from the bottom of a standing column
and returned to the top. During periods of peak heating and cooling, the system
can bleed a portion of the return water rather than reinjection it all, causing
water inflow to the column from the surrounding aquifer. The bleed cycle cools
the column during heat rejection, heats it during heat extraction, and reduces
the required bore depth. 



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Geothermal heat pump consists of several components
heat exchanger, air delivery system and heat pump units with the help of these
components the GHP is work in proper manner. In here explain each component and
parts which are all used in this component.


In geothermal heat pump system the heat exchanger is
buried in to the ground and has different ways. Heat exchanger is a device
which transfers heat from one area to a solid object to another medium. The exchanger
has three types shell and tube type, plate type and air cooled type. In geothermal
heat pump system is used shell and tube type heat exchanger. The exchanger is
designed by primary circuit fluid type which operation is transfer the hot
fluid is named as temperature and flow rate in this circuit mainly want to
takes out the heat and outlet temperature. In another one is secondary circuit
fluid type in this type have similar operation of primary circuit but function
is different it will acts as coolant like cool the fluid. The heat exchanger
which is used in geothermal heat pump system has good life span.



Refrigerant is one of the main components for heat
pump acts as the mixture; it has working as a thermodynamic cycle and behaves
as the heat vehicle exchanger between hot and cold spotlights. In here there is
no cycle of steam compression or coolants undergo in this phase changes of current
heat exchange and due to the environmental restrictions imposed on the
refrigerant. The fluid refrigerators contain chlorine like CFC chlorofluorocarbon
and HCFC hydro chlorofluorocarbon in additional have pure substances of mixture
of halogenated compounds. After the mixture can be change into azeotrope behaves
pure substance similar to chemical or zeotropics. The zeotropic mixtures have
outstanding performance with respect to pure refrigerants.

The most used refrigerant in geothermal heat pump
systems are,


R410A is a hydro fluorocarbon combination it is
suitable for average and low type refrigeration temperature application. R410A
is composes of R32 and R125 in equal range of atmospheric pressure. The boiling
point of this refrigerant is -52.7 degree Celsius and its glide is 0.1 degree Celsius.
The main advantage is not toxic and it will not easily flame. R410A is the
substitute for R22. Application for R410A is used in new residential and
commercial air conditioning areas. The main benefits is using this refrigerant
has more than 60% of greater capacity than R22.


R407C is a mixture of non ozone depleting HFC
refrigerant. For installing and designing this type of refrigerants is perfect
for low and medium level refrigeration temperature systems. It is the combination
of R32, R125 and R134A. The boiling point of this type is -43.4 degree Celsius and
glide is 7.4 degree Celsius. It has similar advantage of R410A like non toxic
and inflammable. Refrigerant have A1 safety classification and replaced by the
refrigerant Freon 22. Maximum this type is uses in domestic purpose and high
power heat pumps.


R134A is a pure substance mixture of tetrafluoroethane
CH2FCF3 composition is one type of HFC refrigerant. Now it analysis of damage
effect gives to ozone layers by chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons
refrigerants. Nowadays this refrigerant is replaced as R12 used in CFC
refrigerant. The mainly used areas are centrifugal compressors, rotary screw
compressor and reciprocating compressor. The atmospheric pressure of boiling point
is -26.3 degree Celsius. This refrigerant also has non toxicity and
inflammable, additional has non corrosive.


R717 is the ammonia refrigerant it has the very low boiling
point is 33.3 degree Celsius and favored due to highly efficient energy
refrigerant, it has low flammable but it is highly toxic because of ammonia.
R717 has zero ozone depletion potential and even have zero global warming
potential. The common application of R717 is used in industries, transport
refrigeration, industrial and commercial centrifugal compressors, even in air
conditioning chillers.


Previously has explained about the heat pump
function in the introduction part. In here go to see about the each heat pump
parts and their functions. Heat pump consists of a lot of process condenser,
evaporator, compressor, expansion valves etc.



Condenser is trends to heat transfer device or
system to convert from gas to liquid state due to cooling the condenser. It has
manufactured by different size and shape depends upon the area of usage like if
condenser is small it has uses in domestic purpose and large in size means uses
in large scale areas in industries. Condenser cabinet consists of coil, compressor
and various controls, compressor is the heart for the condenser system its acts
as to compress the cooled air and pump it to coil in the formation of hot gas.


In this evaporator system has opposite process
compare to condenser this device is used to convert liquid medium to gaseous
medium like liquid is evaporates into a gas form and then gases are transfer or
supply to the compressor. How the water convert into gas with the help of heat
containing in atmospheric air.


Compressor is uses in several types of areas or field
help to compress the low pressure air to gives high pressure air, it acts as mechanical
operating process to compress the gas which is comes from evaporator and delivers
high temperature gas to condenser by reducing the volume size and has a different
types of compressor are mostly used in HVAC industries.


The expansion valve is one of the components of heat
pump system. The process of this valve is to transfer the water from condenser
to evaporator to control the amount of heat released from the evaporator by
means of superheat. Expansion valve is also known as thermal expansion valve
short form is TEV, TXV valve and it acts as metering device.


Air delivery system is also known as duct or duct
flow, it is uses to deliver or transferring the air from outside to inside, or
inside to outside like exhausting and inhaling the air. In here the air which
is released from this system is used to deliver out or something it will acts
as opposite operation inhale the air from atmosphere. Maximum duct is used in
various areas in commercials buildings, industries and even uses in small scale
purpose. The duct has consists many components and for using this duct for
geothermal system want to design the system in large size and compressor speed.
Sometimes compressor speed is variable run the system at low and output fan
also operate slow in most of the time. Everywhere using the duct, all the time
the important needs for good operation are duct should manufacture large in
size, has lower velocity so these gives the result in lower airflow resistance
buts these needs are only applicable for all the residential duct comfort

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