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As mankind’s research abilities have increased, so have the discoveries of the universe outside of Earth; outer space. The term outer space corresponds to a lot, but it also just includes our solar system; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, the belts, and everything else. But scientists have begun to look at the finer details, finding out just how exceptional those small pieces are. They could even contain unimaginable stories of physics, exclusive, unique worlds, and even extraterrestrial life. All of those can be descried if you just zoom into Saturn’s Rings and Moons. This paper looks into the theories of creation and possibilities of life in the rings and on the moons specifically, Enceladus and Titan. Moons Similar to Earth, the moon, Titan contains features such as lakes and oceans. Filling those craters, instead of water, is liquid hydrocarbons. According to NASA.gov, some of Cassini’s findings suggest that the indentations of those bodies are formed by dissolving, analogous to sinkholes. The hydrocarbons contain liquid methane and ethane due to the harsh temperatures of Saturn’s surface; roughly minus 180° Celsius. Some of the lakes are found to be dry or full during different times due to the 30 year season cycle on Saturn and Titan. Nasa.gov also mentioned that a group of scientists found out that in order to produce a 100 meter indentation in Titan’s rainier climates, it would take 50 million years. Another one of Saturn’s fascinating moons is Enceladus. While Titan has a radius of 2,576 km, Enceladus has a radius of merely 252 km. The surface of this small moon is ice covered and baren, or so they thought. Just recently, in 2004, scientists discovered and measured a subsurface ocean beneath the thick, frozen top layer. Crockett (2014) states that the ocean could very well contain liquid salty water due to the heat erupting from the core through geysers. Those scientists concluded, that under 35 km. of ice, a 10 km. ocean existed with a volume similar to that of Lake Superior. Postberg, Tobie, Dambeck (2016) say that no one knows how the heat is generated on the tiny, icy moon to keep the water in its liquid state. According to Postberg et al (2016), the main way that it could generate that amount of heat for so long is from the tides created on Enceladus due to the gravitational pull from Saturn. This is called tidal friction and it could supply the heat for millions and billions of years. There would also be small heat generators such as radioactive decay, since Enceladus has a pretty high isotope level, and serpentinization, a reaction between rock and water, and the time period that it lasts could be lengthened from the tidal friction. The article written by Lopes, R. (2015), shows that the moons are far more extraordinary than anyone had previously thought. Cassini found some fascinating discoveries, but the top ones were mostly about the moons. Such as Enceladus being active, Titan having earthlike features with prebiotic chemistry, the moon, Iapetus having a two-toned surface due to craters, and how the rings of Saturn could possibly create the moons due to the dynamacy of the material. Rings Saturn has beautiful, mesmerizing rings. Those rings are made of an indefinite amount of ice and water particles. According to Dones, L. (2014), the creation of these rings could be due to collisions of moons or a comet. The parts of Saturn’s rings going from the closest to the main planetary body to the furthest are the D Ring, Columbo Gap, C Ring, Maxwell Gap, B Ring, Cassini Division, A Ring, Encke Division, Keeler Gap, F Ring, G Ring, and the E Ring with the 62 moons spread out around them. As Canup, R. (2010) explains, a main theory for the formation of the rings is from a collision of a Titan-sized satellite. She mentions that the composition of the rings is 90-95 percent water and ice just like the satellites in the outer solar system. She points out that saturn only has one large moon; Titan, where as Jupiter has four. It makes sense that at one point Saturn had one, big icy ring. As time goes by, the mass would decrease and all the smaller satellites would be created as well as gaps and divisions.

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