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Automatic
Speed Breaker On Requisite Speed

 

 

              Shahbaz Khan                                       Tanmay
Sharma                                   Jigyasa Chadha

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 B.Tech Scholar                                                    B.tech Scholar                                             Asst. Prof (ECE)

Email:[email protected]              Email : [email protected]                     Email: [email protected]

 

HMR Institute of Technology and Management,Hamidpur, Delhi-110036,India

 

 

Abstract—: It is aptly said that “SPEED THRILLS BUT
KILLS”. Speed Breakers are concernedly used to reduce the speed effectively of
a moving vehicle but a manual speed breaker that is made on roads cost us in
terms of time as well as fuel. The idea behind the proposed project is to have
an automatic speed breaker which works on the speed demand so that vehicles
should be within speed limits at different zones of road. When a vehicle moves
over a speed limit in a defined limit zone the automatic speed breaker will
come up the road obligating the person to slow down the vehicle and works as a
flat surface when the speed of vehicle is within limits that helps to maintain
the average of vehicle as well as save fuel & time, the two important
aspects of life. The notion behind the intimation is to save fuel (which is
predicted to end in upcoming years) as well as to save time over speed-breakers
and to reduce the effort of machine work. When a person faces a speed breaker a
car has to decelerate its speed almost to zero and have to accelerate it again to
an average speed it was carried on before countering the speed breaker which
tends to increase in machinery efforts installed in car as well as costing us
in terms of fuel and time already.

 

Keywords—Speed-Breaker, IR sensors,
ATMEL89S52(Microcontroller8051), LCD Display, Transreceiver(Tx,Rx)

 

                                                                                                                                                               
I.     Introduction

With the emergence of technology in every
field, we have seen it on roads in a very minimal form be it of automatic
streetlights, generating electricity through the passing vehicle, generating
electricity through speed breakers etc. The question arises-Why do we need
that. This is not need, its required. Though I would say it’s a concern of half
a million people to save the fuel or to use minimal fuel minimum time and make
vast use of that. So, taking consideration of this visualization I have been
trying to work on Speed-Breakers. Not just a speed-breaker as shown in figure
(i), an automatic speed-breaker which lets us to save fuel time and yes give
the best results through that we can have a stable system in car and no need of
acceleration and deceleration.

 The
concept behind this proposed work is to save fuel as every year 7937 cases of
accidents have been reported in previous year and is seems to cross it in the
year 20171. Contrary to credence that accidents are caused by the defective
roads it is to be noted that accidents are mainly caused by the carelessness
and avoiding speed-breakers by crossing the speed-breaker at off-roads. The
whole process can be automated by IR sensor which will transmits its all data
to the speed-breaker which is placed at some particular distance as soon as the
vehicle will cross one transmitter-receiver pair to another pair. Proclaimed it clearly we need this kind of technology for sure.

 

(i) Manual Speed Breaker

                                                                                                                                                                  
II.    OBJECTIVE

For the proposed
work the objective behind this innovative work is:-

·        
To reduce the speed of
a vehicle near some institution or organization if the vehicle is over speeding.

·        
Keeping the moving
vehicle speed unchanged if it’s speed is within limits.

·        
Save time by unchanging
its speed.

·        
To maintain the mileage
of vehicles in the time of today’s generation where fuel is both pricy as well
as ending.

·        
Reduce the machinery
work of deceleration and acceleration constantly over a breaker.

·        
Make driver warn
constantly before the speed breaker about the installation of speed breaker by
means of screen LCD or LED.

                                                                                                                                                       
III.   Devices & Circuit

Speed Breaker is designed by surface of semi-circle long metallic
pipe. Two sensors are installed near the speed-breakers to receive the data
from the transmitter-receiver pair that is installed at some distance and to
increase its height to work like speed breaker or remain as flat to road to
pass the vehicle accordingly.

 

A.    Microcontroller

Without microcontroller electronics is just like human being without
brain. Microcontroller plays not only a vital role in our project but if
microcontroller won’t be present our project won’t be cost effective, bulky and
difficult to carry. All the ease was made by the microcontroller which is light
compact and easy to carry. Here in this project we have used ATMEL 89S52
controller which is a family member of 8051 based on INTEL microcontroller.

 

B.    IR SENSOR MODULE

 
IR sensor stands for Infra-Red. This module contains two
parts-transmitter(Tx) & Receiver (Rx).In embedded system it is used to
transmit and receive signal between two devices. It doesn’t work like RF which
operates in different operating frequencies with different operating range. An
Encoder Circuit & Decoder Circuit is attached along with the Transmitter
& Receiver respectively to transmit & receive the message. IR
transmission is better than RF in many ways. It is so because signals through
IR can travel through smaller distances and works in line of sight while RF
doesn’t operates in line-of-sight mode. Moreover, according to the need in
project IR seems to be a better option keeping in mind that both IR and RF have
its own advantage and disadvantage. Therefore, IR signals are used for the
design of this project instead of RF sensor.

 

C.    SEMI-CIRCLE LONG METALLIC PIPE

 
IR sensor stands for Infra-Red. This module contains two
parts-transmitter(Tx) & Receiver (Rx).In embedded system it is used to
transmit and receive signal between two devices. It doesn’t work like RF which
operates in different operating frequencies with different operating range. An
Encoder Circuit & Decoder Circuit is attached along with the Transmitter
& Receiver respectively to transmit & receive the message. IR
transmission is better than RF in many ways. It is so because signals through
IR can travel through smaller distances and works in line of sight while RF
doesn’t operates in line-of-sight mode. Moreover, according to the need in
project IR seems to be a better option keeping in mind that both IR and RF have
its own advantage and disadvantage. Therefore, IR signals are used for the
design of this project instead of RF sensor.

                   (ii)Semi-Circle Long Metallic Pipe Covered
With Black Paint

D.    LCD/LED DISPLAY

While the automatic speed breaker is installed it must be kept in
mind that proper instructions should be provided to vehicle driver so as to
avoid any kind of mishappening on the roads. Therefore for that we have to use
a signal board which cautions the driver that automatic speed breaker is
installed right away and you have to maintain the speed limits. For the project
to cost-effective a signal boad made up of cardboard is used but if we have
enough finance than we can also use an LCD/LED display  which can not only be used for caution
advisory but also different kind of information like weather temp date time and
important messages like how much do you save fuel and time when you keep it in
speed limit and how a constant speed makes a better mileage of car.

 

         

(iii) LCD 2×16

                                                                                                                                                           
IV.   HOW IT WORKS

 

We have transmitter-receiver pair installed at some distance far
from speed breaker. By means of calculation of speed distance and time we will
set a reference time between each transmitter receiver pair. Whenever a
vehicles passes through the pair of transmitter receiver to another pair of
transmitter receiver a time is recorded. If the time is greater than the
reference time it means speed is slow so breaker acts flat on a road and when a
vehicle passes through the transmitter receiver pair again the time is recorded
and when compared to reference time if it took less than reference time than it
works as a speed breaker so vehicle has to considerably reduce its speed so as
to avoid any accident.

The transmitter receiver pair is used here is IR sensor which works
in a line of sight and which helps us to transmit the data that something is
passed over it whenever a vehicle cuts its intercept of transmitter receiver
pair and immediately send its data to the receiver end which is installed near
the speed breaker and intercepts the data and make the long semi-circle pipe
work according to it to make it flat or to make it work like speed breaker.
This helps in maintaining a good mileage of the vehicle and avoids any kind of
rashness in driving as well as maintaining the safety of driver, passenger and
the pedestrians also.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                             
V.    Calculation’s

Before making any calculations we are
going to assume some of the part.           

By assuming,

·        
Vehicle passes over
speed breaker = 1000

·        
Consider every IR
sensor (Tx, Rx) pair is kept at every 0.02km.

·        
Consider the distance
between the 1 pair of Tx,Rx and speed breaker is almost 0.2 km.

·        
Consider the within
speed limit near any institution is 30KM/Hr.

We are doing
calculation over the project by assuming these calculations:-

Consider the
vehicle speed is to be maintained at 30KM/Hr which will be almost to 8.33
mtr/sec which have to cross the (tx,rx) pair which is kept at distance of 20
mtr each. So,

 

Speed=Distance/Time

Therefore,
8.33=20/T

T=20/8.33

=2.4009 sec.

 

So, reference
time has been kept at 2.4009 sec between each pair. Now, whenever a vehicle tries
to pass it before the reference time the speed breaker will appear else it will
be flat on road.

  Consider a vehicle spend 2 sec of its time
while crossing the speed-breaker. SO 2*1000=2000 sec averagely a day=0.55 hour
in a day and almost 16.66 hour in a month. This all record and calculation will
increase considerably when we get exact amount of data that how many vehicle
passes over the speed breaker in a day.

 

Consider a
vehicle spend 2 ml of its fuel while crossing the speed-breaker. SO 2*1000=2000
ml averagely a day=2 ltr in a day and almost 60 ltr in a month. This all record
and calculation will increase considerably when we get exact amount of data
that how many vehicle passes over the speed breaker in a day.

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                        
VI.   result

On completion of
concept of having an automatic speed breaker on speed demand using the Embedded
System Tool it can been proclaimed that the idea is much innovative as well as
very much feasible and cost effective also to make as well as to maintain it
absolutely. The concept behind this work is to maintain the average of the
vehicle as well as safety of people who are working near organization as well
as to save time for both vehicles as well as people. The microcontroller used
here is very important not only in this project but has also variety and wide
range of aspects and uses. Without microcontroller electronics is nothing just
a box. Whereas in the demo project we can clearly conclude that the speed can
be effectively reduced of speedy vehicle maintaining people safety as well as
to maintain the average and not only this it helps to reduce the machinery work
of accelerator and brakes. The working demo of the projects is very charming
feasible and realistic and there would be no problem in implementing this
project as a physical work.

 

(iv) Graph of
saved fuel; With v/s Without ASB

(v) Graph of
saved time; With v/s Without ASB

 

                                                                                                                                                               
VII.  conclusion

Thus by making this project we can
easily conclude that this project is feasible, futuristic project and taking
considerations of all aspects it is determined to say that every day not only liters
of fuel and time is saved but also checks a good mileage of vehicle and
effortlessly reduces the machine work involved in the vehicle which makes
maintenance work less and just by installing a small project of automatic speed
breaker we can easily save money which we spend on fuel & maintenance which
in upcoming years going to be sky-high pricy and save time which can’t be
purchased at any cost and yes, in every aspect save so many lives in a day.
From the above (i) graph we can easily conclude that how easily so much time is
saved by just placing a small device on road which is also feasible. From the
above (ii) graph we can also conclude that in a year not only time but also
save a lot of fuel just by maintaining the speed and not to over-speed your
vehicle so that automatic speed breaker works as a flat surface and doesn’t
obstruct the speed of vehicle so to maintain the mileage and reduce the machinery
work involved.

 

                                                                                                                                                      
VIII.FUTURE ASPECTS

An impressive idea behind the project stimulates completely that
project is not only feasible but introspects us that this project is our
future. In the world full of automated system from turning off T.V. to turning on
T.V. automatic machines like microwave washing machine why cannot a automatic
speed breaker be installed which can save lives as well as reduce machine work
and maintain a good mileage in the pricy world where fuel prices are already
overshooting the sky. The notion is so good with the project that any
complexity associated with it is considered to be easy by taking the reference
of smartness of the virtue of notion.

 

 

 

References

1  Harikrishnan P.
M., Varun P. Gopi, “Vehicle Vibration Signal Processing   for Road Surface Monitoring”, Sensors
Journal IEEE, vol. 17, pp. 5192-5197, 2017, ISSN 1530-437X

2L.Thomas, S.A.James et.
Al., “Automatic speed control of vehicles Using RFID”, IJEIT,vol. 3, Issue 11,
2014, ISSN 227-3754

 

3 M.V.N.R.P. Kumar, Deeepak
S. Kesare et. Al., “Highway Speed Control and Automatic Breaking System”, International
Journal of Research in afvent Technology, vol. 3, no. 5, 2015, ISSN 2321-9637

 

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