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                                                                        CHAPTER
ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

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The
proportion of children stunted, under—weight and wasted today ae more than they
were ten years ago (Oloyede). Malnutrition and our
diets constitute the number one driver of global burden of diseases (UNICEF).  Good nutrition is a vital factor to living a
healthy life. Improving nutrition contributes to productivity and economic
development. The first goal of the eight Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) is
to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. The third target of this goal is to
half the proportion of people suffering from hunger. Based on the MDG report
2013, one in eight people worldwide does not consume enough food on a regular
basis to gain their minimum dietary energy requirements and the majority of the
under-nourished ones (852 million) reside in developing countries (Elham Kavosi,
2014).  Between 2007 and 2013, malnutrition has been
stable, but to has increased significantly from 10 percent in 2011 to 18
percent in 2013. (UNICEF). The World Health
Organization considers that poor nutrition is the single most important threat
to the world’s health. ( European
Parliament, 2010)

Malnutrition, in all its forms, imposes unacceptably high
costs: direct and indirect on individuals, families and nations. The worst
damages of malnutrition happen in the first 1000 days i.e. From pregnancy to
two years ( European Parliament, 2010). Children from rural
areas are almost twice as likely to be stunted than children from urban
areas. 

In Africa and south Asia, 27?51% of women of
reproductive age are underweight (ACC/SCN, 2000), and it is predicted that
about 130 million children will be underweight in 2005 (21% of all children)
(de Onis et al., 2004a). (Monika Blössner, 2005).

According to Professor Robert Black, Department of
International Health at the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
said, a Nations economic advancement is tied to the first 1000 days of every
child’s life. Undernourished children are more susceptible to infectious
diseases and achieve less education and have lower cognitive abilities. As a
result, undernutrition can significantly impede a country’s economic growth. (Nordqvist, 2013)

It is estimated that 7 to 16 % of all grade repetitions
in schools are associated with malnourished children. 90 % of grade repetition
occurs in primary schools. (COHA, February 2014). Some of the causes
of malnutrition inn developing countries are: high prevalence of bacterial and
parasitic diseases and protein energy malnutrition (Olaf Muller, 2005). Child malnutrition
is associated with approximately 60percent of under-five mortality in
Sub-Saharan Africa(SSA) countries (Kandala, 2011)

There are many factors that can cause malnutrition.
Some of these factors according to ( Action Against Hunger, 2017) are: lack of access
to food, disease, conflicts, climate change and lack of safe drinking water.

According to United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF),
stunting in early life is linked to 0.7 grade loss in schooling, a 7-month
delay in starting school and between 22 and 45 percent reduction in lifetime
earnings. ( European Parliament, 2010) . According to WHO,
an estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years are overweight or
obese, while some 159 million are stunted and 50 million are wasted (WHO, 2016)

Also (Nordqqvist, 2016) also stated that poor diet, mental
health problems, mobility problems, digestive disorders and stomach conditions
and alcoholism cause malnutrition.

Malnutrition slows economic growth and perpetrates
poverty. Also malnutrition represents a direct loss on productivity and human
capital in the economy. ( European Parliament, 2010). According to ( European Parliament, 2010) at micro level 1
percent loss in adult height as a result of childhood stunting equals to a 1.4
percent loss in productivity of the individual and also the economic cost of
malnutrition on Gross Domestic Product(GDP) is estimated to range from 2 or 3
percent to 16 percent in African, Caribbean and Pacific states(ACP countries).

Malnutrition
is a term used to refer to any condition in which the body does not receive enough
nutrients for proper function.  It can be
as a result of starvation, in which a person has an inadequate intake of
calories. It may also be related to a deficiency in nutrient for example
vitamin C deficiency.  (medicinenet)

According
to World Health Organization (WHO), Malnutrition refers to deficiencies,
excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and or nutrients. (WHO, 2016)

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nutrition
is at the top of the global development agenda, the millennium development
goals (MDGs). There’s only three years left to achieve the MDGs. Though several
efforts have been made by the government to reduce the scourge of malnutrition.
Various programmes have been put together by the government. The Scale Up
Nutrition (SUN) movement was launched in 2015 and it was meant to last till
2015, the Zero Hunger Challenge (ZHC), launched in May, 2012.

Malnutrition
costs low income countries billions of dollars every year, preventing one child
from being born with a low birth weight is worth $580. (laura). The economic cost
of malnutrition is very high.

As
stated by Horten and Steckel 2013, The economic consequences of malnutrition in
GDP is about 10 percent- far greater than the annual percentage loss in world
GDP due to the global financial crisis of 2008 – 2010. (UNICEF)

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.

The
study attempts to give answers to the following questions

1.      How
has malnutrition affected education in the Nigerian economy?

2.      How
has malnutrition affected Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in Nigeria?

3.      Is
there a causal relationship between malnutrition and productivity in Nigeria?

 

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE
STUDY

The
specific objectives of the research include:

1.      To
evaluate the effects of malnutrition on education in Nigeria.

2.      To
evaluate the effects of malnutrition on GDP in Nigeria.

3.      To
examine if there is a causal relationship between malnutrition and productivity
in Nigeria.

 

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
STUDY

In
every economy, the importance of good nutrition cannot be overemphasized and
the effects of malnutrition cannot be overlooked. This study is significant in
both theoretical and practical sense. 
This study will be greatly beneficial to the larger society. This
research aims at looking at the extent to which malnutrition affects the rate
of Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in an economy.

To
the Public: this study will help them know how much malnutrition has affected
the Nigerian economy, the effects of malnutrition on Gross Domestic
Product(GDP) and also to enlighten them on the relationship between
malnutrition and productivity.

To
the Academia: this research could serve as a guide to students and researchers
who would later work on malnutrition and also serve as a foundation to build
upon.

To
Policy Makers: this study can serve as a guide to recommend suitable policies
to increasing Gross Domestic Product(GDP) through reduction in malnutrition.

 

1.6. Research hypothesis

In
this study, the following hypothesis will be tested,

Hypothesis
1

H0:
Malnutrition has no effect on the growth rate of the Nigerian economy.

H1:
Malnutrition has an effect on the growth rate of the Nigerian economy.

 

Hypothesis
2

H0:
Malnutrition has no effect on GDP in Nigeria.

H1:
Malnutrition has an effect GDP in Nigeria.

 

Hypothesis
3

H0:
There is no causal relationship between malnutrition and productivity in
Nigeria

H1:
There is a causal relationship between malnutrition and productivity in Nigeria

 

1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The
scope of this study covers all relevant issues surrounding malnutrition in
Nigeria, the effects of malnutrition on the growth rate of the Nigerian
economy, the effects of malnutrition on Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in Nigeria.
This study is going to cover the trend of education and malnutrition in
Nigeria. The trend of malnutrition on Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in Nigeria
over a thirty-five-year period (1980 – 2015) to ensure right results are
documented.

 

1.8. RESEARCH METHOD

In
addition to the literature review, secondary data for economic growth,
education and GDP in Nigeria is analysed, computed with the aid of tables and
graphs. The descriptive method of analysis and comparison of results obtained
from Nigeria for the various variables under consideration.

 

1.9. DATA SOURCES.

World
Health Organization (WHO), World Bank Indicators, Central Bank Nigeria (CBN),
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).

 

1.10 SYNOPSIS OF CHAPTERS

Chapter
one is the general introduction of the study. It consists of an analysis of the
study; the identified gaps in the economy, the research question from which the
study s founded, the objectives of the study as well as the sources of data.

Chapter
two is the literature review. It consists of conceptual definitions of
malnutrition, education,  GDP and other
significant concepts used in this study. It also includes the effect of
malnutrition on education, GDP and economic growth.

Chapter
three is the theoretical framework of the study. The research methodologies,
model specification, techniques of estimation, italicize expectations, data
sources and measurements and analytical framework

Chapter
four deals with estimation and results, it deals with the presentation,
analysis and interpretation of the data derived from the data in chapter three.
The research and policy implications of the findings are discussed.

Chapter
five consists of the summary of the study, recommendations and conclusions. It
also includes references, bibliographies and appendices. This chapter also
includes limitations to the study which constitutes areas for further research.

 

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