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Computational
techniques improved considerably the animation production in terms of time and
costs because traditional animation requires more time and labour force to
create animations. One recent example is the movie Loving Vincent, that
required more than a hundred painters to create the animated movie. The process
thanks to computer technologies is more efficient and cost less to produce.

Besides that, the results achieved with the 3D animation production are not
possible to achieve in traditional animation. If one considers the perspective
of each frame, it has a huge impact on the storytelling and in the viewer
experience. Changes in perspective and the point of view of the frames have a
bigger impact in traditional animation while in it can be easily changed in 3D
projects. Considering this, computational technologies increased the margin of
error in the production process, because a number of steps can be undone.

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For example, one kind of computer animation is the
scripted animation, that is based on frames and interpolation. In the
traditional animation, the illusion of movement was created through the
illustration frame-by-frame, with an illustrator creating the key-frames frames
and a team of animators working in the in-between frames. Computer animation,
on the other hand, the key-frames are set and the in-between animation frames
are generated automatically by the system through interpolation. One technique
to animate the in-between frames is the linear interpolation (Fig. 13), that
allows calculating new positions at equal intervals along a straight line
(Spalter, 1999). You determine the number of positions calculated and thus the
number of frames created. There is also the nonlinear interpolation (Fig. 14),
that creates a more realistic motion effect. In the case of frames and
in-between frames, the computational techniques reduced the time and also the
production costs, because the computer substituted a number of people that
would be involved in the process of drawing the frames. At the same time, the
accuracy in terms of the ‘pencil strokes’ of the draw are becoming
standardized, what would be hard to achieve in the hand-drawing process. For
example, by observing the classic Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs from Disney,
it can be noticed some little changes in the formats of the animated objects
and characters, also the flow of movement is not as realistic as can be
achieved with computer technologies.

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