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he Atlantic Forest, also known as The Gran Chaco, is a lowland plain in central South Africa, it also goes through Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The Atlantic forest holds a diverse and fascinating range of species, many of which are found nowhere else but in the atlantic rainforest, and as a result it has been selected as a global hotspot of biodiversity. The atlantic forest can be divided into a number of habitat types. In the lowlands, there is a narrow strip of land along the Brazilian coast, and has mainly tropical moist broadleaf forest. There is also deciduous and semi-deciduous forest that extend across mountain foothills and slopes. The forest also includes other associated habitats such as mangrove forests, high-altitude grasslands, and coastal forests and scrub on sandy soils. The Atlantic Forest has 20,000 species of plants, and 2,200 species of mammals, amphibians, birds, and reptiles. Some plants that are in the atlantic forest include canopies, ferns, lianas, orchids, bromeliads, and mosses and epiphytes. Over all the Atlantic forest has a parklike landscape, and it has some herbaceous savanas. Some animals that are in the atlantic forest include the Golden Lion Tamarin, Wooly Spider Monkey, Red- Tailed Parrot, and Maned Three Toed Sloth. The Atlantic Forest gets some of the hottest weather in the southern continent, it varies from tropical in the north to warm temperatures in the south. The average temperature varies from  60 to 85 °F (16 to 29 °C, the average humidity is 50% and 75%. All these animals and plants are becoming endangered because of deforestation. The atlantic forest is facing many new changes and unfortunately these changes are having negative effects on the wildlife and species that live in the forest. An incredible eight percent of the world’s plant species occur in the Atlantic forest, with 8,000 out of a total of 20,000 or more plant species found nowhere else. In particular, more than half of the Atlantic forest trees are endemic. Approximately, 92 percent of the Atlantic forest is due to deforestation, and the greatest demolition is in the coastal regions of the northeast. The forest that does remain is approximately only 8 percent of the original land. As a result, much of the Atlantic forest’s unique wildlife is threatened with extinction, and 148 of its vertebrate species are classified as Critically Endangered or extinct. There are also 104 types of species who are found nowhere else so they depend entirely on the atlantic forest. One of the main reasons animals and plants are becoming endangered is because of deforestation and agricultural expansion. The deforestation of the atlantic forest started a long time ago, since the Europeans started clearing the forest for timber, and cattle ranches. Recently, the forest land has been turned into soy cultivation, pine and eucalyptus plantations. There are some continuing problems like illegal logging, firewood harvesting, road building, hunting, and spread on invasive species. Also, the regions river system has been greatly affected by pollution, drainage, and dam construction, which act as a main source of food and shelter to many animals and plants. Other causes include soil erosion, and rapid loss of soil fertility which means that farmers have to clear forest land to maintain the crop yields. These causes affect the forest and if it continues in that same speed, soon the forest will be gone.  

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