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How do ‘hybrid’ cars (ones that use both gasoline and electricity) differ from traditional (gasoline-only) cars?How hybrid vehicles operate differently from regular combustion engine vehicles?              Hybrid cars are an extraordinary innovation, especially from the point of view of sustainable mobility and savings for consumers. with the increasing warnings about global warming, hybrids cars emerged as an opportunity to help reducing environment’s pollution.Hybrid cars are simply; vehicles that use more than one source of energy for its running in order to achieve propulsion.The main differences between hybrid cars and gasoline cars are the engine, fuel consumption, and the pollution that is produced. Unlike the Gasoline cars that use a gas-powered engine A hybrid car is equipped with two engines. The first, traditional, internal combustion, the second battery-powered.  the system is bimodal because the combustion engine not only operates to recharge the batteries, but also moves the vehicle alternately or simultaneously to the electric engine. The Toyota Prius, for instance. uses a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. The electric motor powers the car initially up to 15 mph, then the gas engine takes over and propel the car during the cruise.In this phase, the gas engine is the most effective. An article issued by serc.carleton.edu  “A big advance was that the electric motor/generator also served as the primary brake for reducing speed. The unused momentum of the car was turned into electricity by the generator as the car coasted. For the first time, energy from braking was being stored for future use. Prior to this, brakes simply converted kinetic energy of the car to heat” (SERC.CARLETON.EDU, (n.d.). The advantages of hybrid technology are not limited to the environmental aspect alone, but also ensure savings in economic terms.  Besides a smaller, more efficient engine, today’s hybrids use many other ways to increase fuel efficiency.  One way is the regenerative braking. Whenever you step on the brake pedal in your car, you are removing energy from the car. The faster a car is going, the more kinetic energy it has. The brakes of a car remove this energy and dissipate it in the form of heat. A hybrid car can capture some of this energy and store it in the battery. A hybrid car does not need to rely on the gasoline engine all the time because it has an alternate power source the electric motor and batteries. For example, when the car is stopped at a red light the gas engine turns off. The use of advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag. This drag can be reduced in a variety of ways. One way is to reduce the frontal area of the car, reducing disturbances around objects that stick out from the the car or eliminating them altogether can also help to improve the aerodynamics. The use of lightweight materials. Reducing the overall weight of a car is one easy way to increase the mileage. A lighter vehicle uses less energy during acceleration or climbing up a hill. Composite materials like carbon fiber or lightweight metals like aluminum and magnesium can be used to reduce weight. According to a research made by the U.S. Department Of Energy “HEVs typically achieve better fuel economy and have lower fuel costs than similar conventional vehicles. For example, the 2017 Honda Accord Hybrid has an EPA combined city-and-highway fuel economy estimate of 48 miles per gallon, while the estimate for the conventional 2017 Accord (four cylinder, automatic) is 30 miles per gallon” (U.S Department of energy, (n.d.). Benefit of this technology is not limited to a better fuel efficiency, but also can be environmentally friendly. There are several environmental benefits that result from improved gas mileage of hybrid cars. Firstly, lower fuel consumption results in reduced carbon dioxide emissions, which is one of the major greenhouse gases involved in climate change. Secondly, lower fuel consumption results in reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides, which are hazardous to human health. Thirdly, lower fuel consumption results in a lower need for gasoline, which can reduce the need for oil from  Hydraulic fracturing and other sources. ?   “LiveScience explains that there are many different kinds of hybrid cars, including plug-in electric vehicles, cars with batteries that get charged when the driver uses the gasoline  engine or brakes, and cars with different mixes of hybrid technologies. Although the environmental benefits vary with the type of hybrid, on average, LiveStrong reports that it’s estimated that compact, mid-size, mid-size sport utility, and SUV hybrids produce 10%, 15%, 19%, and 21% less greenhouse gas emissions than conventional counterparts respectively” ( Hybrid cars, 2017).                                                                                                                                 In conclusion, having two motors one combustion engine and one electric, a hybrid is a fuel-efficient vehicle. In the analysis above it is clear that hybrid cars offer economic benefits and most importantly they are eco-friendly.

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