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In the 1900th century, the American government had been trying to get the Indians land. They tried bribing them, peacefully telling them to leave but they wouldn’t. When all else failed they took a more violent approach. They forcefully removed the Indians from their land which led to the trail of tears which caused many Indians their life’s. But some Indians made treaties stating that they would peacefully move out of their land. All of the Indian tribes were relocated to Indian territory or now a day Oklahoma. The Americans had tried to get the land that they had thought they owned through many tactics. They tried bribing them they even tried treaties, 4 out of 5 of the Indian tribes made treaties to peacefully move. Americans tried to civilize the Native Americans but they ended up still being afraid of them. “Many of these whites yearned to make their fortunes by growing cotton, and they did not care how “civilized” their native neighbors were. They wanted that land and they would do almost anything to get it. They stole livestock, burned and looted houses and towns, and squatted on land that did not belong to them”(Staff 1). The Americans selfishness showed that no matter how much they tried to befriend the Indians they were always still scared of them. All the attempts that they tried to compromise with the Indians failed so it just led to more conflicts. “Some officials in the early years of the American republic, such as President George Washington, believed that the best way to solve this “Indian problem” was simply to “civilize” the Native Americans”(Staff 1). But in the end, George Washington’s plan inevitably failed.”Over the next decade, Jackson led the way in the Indian removal campaign. Helping to negotiate nine of the eleven major treaties to remove Indians. Under this kind of pressure, Native American tribes—specifically the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw—realized that they could not defeat the Americans in war”(History.Gov Staff 1). Many tribes finally realized they couldn’t beat them in a war so they started to make treaties with them and take bribes. Only 4 out of the 5 made treaties and moved to Indian territory or now a day Oklahoma. But the tribes that did not take the offer stayed on their land and ended up suffering because of it. The tribes that did not take the offer was forcefully removed from their land later on. “The U.S. Government used treaties as one means to displace Indians from their tribal lands, a mechanism that was strengthened with the Removal Act of 1830. In cases where this failed, the government sometimes violated both treaties and Supreme Court rulings to facilitate the spread of European Americans westward across the continent”(History.Gov Staff 1).”In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson’s Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the “Trail of Tears,” because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died”(PBS 1). Before the Trail of Tears began when they were first being removed they didn’t have time to pack anything whatever was in their hands or whatever they could grab before they were forcefully removed was what they took with them. Many people left valuables and other important things behind, They left their farms, livestock, and their homes behind.” Then, they marched the Indians more than 1,200 miles to Indian territory. Whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera, and starvation were epidemic along the way, and historians estimate that more than 5,000 Cherokee died as a result of the journey.By 1840, tens of thousands of Native Americans had been driven off of their land in the southeastern states and forced to move across the Mississippi to Indian territory. The federal government promised that their new land would remain unmolested forever, but as the line of white settlement pushed westward, “Indian country” shrank and shrank. In 1907, Oklahoma became a state and Indian territory was gone for good”(Staff 1). Andrew Jackson was the president at the time he made the act called the Indian Removal act of 1830 despite what the supreme court told him. “In the court case Worcester v. Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court held in 1832 that the Cherokee Indians constituted a nation holding distinct sovereign powers. Although the decision became the foundation of the principle of tribal sovereignty in the twentieth century, it did not protect the Cherokees from being removed from their ancestral homeland in the Southeast”(Rare 1). “John Marshall has made his decision: now let him enforce it” (Andrew Jackson). “The Georgia government recognized that Worcester was influential in the Cherokee resistance movement and enacted a law that prohibited “white persons” from residing within the Cherokee Nation without permission from the state. Georgia gave the missionaries until March 1, 1831, to obtain a license of residency or leave the Cherokee Nation”(Rare 1). Georgia tried a lot of different methods to remove the Indians from their land most of them failed and in the end, they got what they want through the Indian Removal Act.The Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears changed how the Indians looked at the Americans. The Indians thought that the Americans couldn’t be trusted anymore. But they ended up trusting them again to not steal their land again once they had moved to Oklahoma they thought that it would be a fresh new life and would not be bothered by the Americans. But in 1907 Oklahoma became a full state and Indian territory disappeared forever.Georgia wanted the Indians removed so they could expand their land. Georgia enacted yet another law on March 1, 1831, that ordered all white persons, except women, children and minors residing within Cherokee Nation to take an oath of allegiance to the state. This was aimed at the missionaries. Worcester was looked up to, respected and revered by the Cherokees. It was plain to the state officials that Worcester was largely responsible for the Cherokees recent progress and understanding of the intentions of the white government. Unknown to him, a complaint had already been lodged to the American Board by Col. Thomas McKenney that Worcester was “interfering with the press, and writing scurrilous articles regarding officer of government and other public men”(Cherokee Nation 1).”Between 1827 and 1831 the Georgia legislature extended the state’s jurisdiction over Cherokee territory, passed laws purporting to abolish the Cherokees’ laws and government, and set in motion a process to seize the Cherokees’ lands, divide it into parcels, and offer the parcels in a lottery to white Georgians. In 1828 Andrew Jackson was elected president of the United States, and he immediately declared the removal of eastern tribes a national objective. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to negotiate removal treaties”(Garrison 1). Georgia put a ban on ministers being with the Indians and they had to leave or be imprisoned, they tried so many different tactics to get rid of the Indians the only one that worked was brute force and making a law.  Samuel Worcester was a big influence for the Indians he tried to protect their sovereignty. Samuel worked with Eliot Boudinot to translate the Bible into Cherokee language. “On March 12th, 1831, Worcester and 11 other missionaries were arrested for refusing to comply with a recently passed Georgia law requiring white persons wishing to live on Native American land to obtain licenses. Their convictions were overturned by the United States Supreme Court on the grounds that the Cherokees were an independent political community subject only to the authority of the federal government, as stipulated by several treaties”(Shmoop Editorial Team). “Gilmer ordered the militia to arrest Worcester and the others who signed the document. Worcester was arrested on July 7, 1831, and forced to walk with the other missionaries to Lawrenceville, Georgia (Gwinnett County). Quickly brought to trial and convicted, Worcester stuck to his beliefs and was sentenced to prison on September 16, 1832. Only one other missionary had refused a settlement offer by the state. William Wirt again argued the case and in late 1832 the Supreme Court ruled the Cherokee Nation was independent and under the Treaty Clause of the Constitution, all dealings with the Cherokee fell under federal jurisdiction. The ruling was ignored by Gilmer and President Andrew Jackson, who continued to hold the men prisoners”(North Georgia 1).They tried bribing them they even tried treaties, 4 out of 5 of the Indian tribes made treaties to peacefully move. Americans tried to civilize the Indians but it failed. Andrew Jackson made an act called the Indian Removal Act. The Indian Removal act led to the Trail of Tears. Andrew Jackson did not listen to the supreme court. In my opinion, removing Indians was a terrible thing.    

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