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In the last few decades, rail industry is facing considerable
investments, which enabled us to
develop our civilization with unexpected consequences that nobody expected.
Trains have been modernized over time in the several aspects, leading to the
creation of the two best trains in our time such as Magnetic Levitation
(Maglev) and High-speed rail (HSR) trains. Today more and more countries
are taking an interest in this two trains, especially USA, where rail industry
is an important policy issue. This topic is relevant to society due to
the fact that trains are not only the main transport system which allow to
undertake long trips in a considerable amount of time, but also it has an
impressive contribution to the development of economy. As a student following
physics and mathematics pathway the construction of transportation vehicles and
their comparison of their physical aspects is of the interest and relevance. This research will show that,
even though, there are several problems connected to Maglev trains, such as
investment and maintenance cost, it has significant superior compared to HSR in
terms of physical aspects, safety and reliability and impact on

   List of Research Questions:

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1.    What are the main rail transport systems in the USA?

2.    Do Maglev trains have less impact to environment than
HSR trains?

3.    How much of financial
investment do both types of trains require?

4.    How do Maglev and HSR measure for acceleration and

5.    Which type of trains is reliable and safer?

Section 2

Outline of Main Ideas


High-Speed Ground Transportation Systems

Magnetic Levitation trains (Jaiaraman
and Sundaram 2015)

                        2.2. High-speed rail
trains (Vuchic and
Casello 2002)

3. Recent Developments and Current Issues (Ziemke 2010)

4. Comparison between trains

4.1. Technical

Acceleration (Schach, Jehle, and Naumann 2006)

Travel speed (Lui and Deng 2003)

4.1.3. Flexibility in
track alignment (Lee, Kim and Lee)

                        4.2. Environmental impacts

Noise emission (Lui and Deng 2003)

Interference with the Natural Environment (Ziemke 2010)

Pollutant emissions

4.3. Economic Aspects

Investment cost (Ziemke 2010)

Maintenance and Rehabilitation cost     

Energy cost and consumption      

4.4. Safety and
Reliability (Ziemke 2010)






annotated source

Vuchic, Vukan R., and
Jeffrey M. Casello. 2002. “An evaluation of maglev technology and its
comparison with high speed rail.” Transportation Quarterly 56.2:


The leader
author, Vuchic Vukan spent more than 40 years of
his life on teaching and researching at the University of Pennsylvania.
Professor Vuchic is generally perceived as one of the world’s preeminent
researchers in transportation systems engineering and planning. He got his PhD
from the University of California at Berkeley in 1966. He has published more
than 130 papers in highly respected journals. Jeffrey Casello came to the
University of Waterloo from the University of Pennsylvania, where he finished
his PhD and filled in as a postdoctoral analyst. He has composed more than
50 articles and reports for both scholarly and professional audiences. This
study gives information about both Maglev and HSR and presents a systematic comparison of the
proposed Maglev systems and high speed rail systems. The author’s findings
suggest that superiority of Maglev over high-speed rail, and its aura as
a “system of the future,” are based on superiority in speed, lower energy
consumption and better passenger attraction. Regarding the other sources, I
have annotated, I can use this article to write detailed information about HSR.




annotated source

Liu, Rongfang, and Yi Deng. 2004.
“Comparing Operating Characteristics Of High-Speed Rail And Maglev
Systems: Case Study Of Beijing-Shanghai Corridor”. Transportation Research
Record: Journal Of The Transportation Research Board 1863: 19-27.



article is from a peer reviewed academic journal and has a strong authority as
the lead author Rachel Liu, who
obtained PhD degree at University of South Florida and works as a professor at
New Jersey Institute of Technology. She has
extensive experience in the area of intermodal transportation planning and
engineering, environmental impact and major investment studies. She likewise
exhibited her capacity of actualizing thoughts and theories into real world
projects through various of research projects, professional affiliations, and
extensive publications. Yi Deng is working at Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering of New
Jersey Institute of Technology, who was the assistant of professor. The main
purpose of this paper is to present overview of Maglev and HSR and provide the
best examples of trains that includes transportation systems in developed
countries like France, Japan, Germany. Moreover, they compare the
characteristics of trains in aspects such as speed, acceleration, safety and energy
consumption. This paper and the previous one would be the best
complement of each other to describe the recent developments of Maglev and HSR.
I will use this source to compare trains in terms of impact on environment,
especially noise emission. 



Third annotated source

Ziemke, Dominik. 2010. Comparison Of
High-Speed Rail Systems For The United States. Atlanta, Ga.: Georgia Institute
of Technology.


The author, Dominik Ziemke is a Chair for Transport Systems Planning and Transport Telematics at technical
university of Berlin. He received Master’s Degree with article ‘Comparison of High-Speed Rail Systems for the
United States’. However, this work approved by Dr. Michael Meyer, Dr. Frank
Southworth, Dr. Laurie A. Garrow, who obtained their PhDs from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology),  Leeds
University and Northwestern University
respectively. The aim of this research is to analyse and compare the
technological aspects available for those high-speed ground transportation
systems. 58 qualities of both high-speed ground transportation systems are
assessed composed into seven classes related to technology, natural effects,
economic considerations, user-friendliness, operations, political variables,
and safety. For each of the 58 characteristics, advantage esteems are allocated
for each framework in view of their execution. This paper was useful at
estimating accurate magnitudes of speed and acceleration of trains. It will be
used in the main body paragraphs of my report at the section that considers the
technical aspects of vehicles since it contains travel speed and flexibility.


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