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It
is important for a committee to address the topic in order to expand the
knowledge and understanding of the delegates about trafficking of refugees and also
to contribute solutions for the problems to be solved. Through this, delegates
can study the situation of how refugees are suffered because of various
trafficking such as forced labor, sex work and etc. Refugee is someone who has
been forced to flee from his or her homeland through crossing the national
borders of other country due to war, natural disasters, unrest or persecution
for nationality, political and religious beliefs. There are smugglers on borders
whom refugees will deal to; conditions which affect or abuse the refugees. They
are vulnerable to human trafficking. For example, a woman refugee will
voluntarily take on sex work in order to reach Spain and the people are often
place in unseaworthy vessel after the trade between the smugglers. VOA news
reported most of the people who arrive in Europe are rescued by European ships
once they reach the international waters. In order to become a refugee in
Spain, he or she will apply for Asylum.  According to the legislation of UNHCR, States
are expected to cooperate with us in ensuring that the rights of refugees are
respected and protected.

The
Spain wants to protect the rights and privileges of refugees against different
kinds of human trafficking. This country focuses on the implementation of laws
regarding refugees. It is played an important leadership role in terms of
agreement with refugees but it does not have a history of having an inviting
asylum policy. Filippo Grandi said, “There is also happenings of conflict and
exile, welcoming and supporting refugees, through organizations, and financial
and social support for campaigns and refugee programs.” Like Madrid which has pledged
ten million euros towards resettlement services, its football team Real Madrid
has pledged over one million euros and the use of  their facilities for incoming refugees and the
provinces and municipalities of Valencia has guaranteed to connect with public
buildings to offer housing for them. In addition of VOA reports, most countries in Europe have similarly small
accomplishments, based on the pledges to welcome the refugees they made to the
European Commission in 2015.

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2017 Trafficking in
Persons Report over the past five years of US Diplomacy in Action, Spain is a
destination, source, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected
to forced labor and sex trafficking. Women from Eastern Europe (particularly
Romania and Bulgaria), South America (particularly Paraguay, Brazil, Colombia,
and Ecuador), China, and Nigeria are subjected to sex trafficking in Spain. Men
and women from South and East Asia, particularly China, are subjected to forced
labor in the textile, agricultural, construction, industrial, and service
sectors. Victims are recruited by false promises of employment in the service
industry or agriculture and forced into prostitution and debt bondage upon
their arrival to Spain. Traffickers also lure some victims from within Spain
and the EU. Prostitution is allowed under certain conditions in Spain, although
NGOs believe a large percentage of individuals in prostitution in Spain are
trafficking victims. Many women in prostitution in Spain are held under the
control of Nigerian, Romanian, and Spanish trafficking networks that operate
out of major cities in Spain. However, victims are increasingly subjected to
trafficking by individuals and smaller groups of traffickers, often in homes or
apartments where detection and investigation are more difficult. Unaccompanied
migrant children continue to be vulnerable to sex trafficking and forced
begging. Many of the victims cannot speak Spanish and are under threat, in
debt, and unaware that help is available. Others are undocumented immigrants,
so they are afraid to go to the police. One example of this was the case of an
undocumented immigrant who was arrested and deported when she reported to the
police in a coastal town in the province of Málaga that she had been raped. The
Spain’s determination maintained efforts on law enforcement against
trafficking.  The article 177 bis of the
criminal code declares illegal or criminalizes forced labor or begging, sexual
exploitation and organ removal by means of forced fraud or coercion.  The Spanish   Criminal
Code punishments the crime of human trafficking with 5 up to 8 years of imprisonment
or 8  up to 12 years of imprisonment in
certain degree or circumstances like physical and mental integrity.  For example, the 6 years old criminal group
that takes control of the prostitution industry from Bulgaria to Spain, the
Spain did a large-scale joint investigation supported by Eurojust, Europol,
policemen, prosecutors and judges.  Implementing
the laws on trafficking are also considered to penalize the criminals through large-scale
joint investigation with law enforcement authorities supported by organizations
or institutions and judicial with two or more parties. 

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