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Masajo (2017) states in her
research that “This learning environment in the Philippines is probably similar
to that of most developing nations. Unlike developed countries, students are
provided with adequate, if not very sufficient and varied, instructional
devices for classroom use to accommodate students with diverse learning styles.
On books alone, the 2003 TIMSS report (IEA 2004) reveals that 31% of students
in Australia, 17% in Japan, and 24% in USA, have more than 200 books at home in
contrast with only 3% in the Philippines. Eighty-three percent (83%) of
students in Australia, 55% in Japan, and 79% in USA also use computers at home
and in school to reinforce classroom instruction, as against 11% in the
Philippines which is below the international average of 39%. While developed
nations can attract bright people to their teaching work force because of
relatively higher compensations, Filipino teachers’ salary can hardly compare to
that in most developed countries (Mehrotra & Buckland, 1998). To
illustrate, the 1998 UNICEF data indicate that Philippine teachers receive only
an annual income of $2,066, while their counterparts in Japan, $28,770, and in
the US, $24,780. Partaking-out consideration of the standard of living in these
countries, the average teacher’s salary in the Philippines can hardly compare
with that of leadership in developed nations. (The Conditions of Secondary
School Physics, n.d.) In past centuries, constructivist ideas were not widely
valued due to the perception that children’s play was seen as aimless and of
little importance. Jean Piaget did not agree with these traditional views,
however. (Chapter 2 – Review of Related Literature, n.d.) He saw playas an
important and necessary part of the student’s cognitive development and
provided scientific evidence for his views. (Wikipedia, 2017) Today,
constructivist theories are influential throughout much of the so-called
informal learning sector. (Chapter 2 – Review of Related Literature, n.d.) One
good example of constructivist learning in an informal setting is the
investigate Centre at The Natural History Museum, London. (Wikipedia, 2017) Here
visitors are encouraged to explore a collection of real natural history
specimens, to practice some scientific skills and make discoveries for
themselves. (Chapter 2 – Review of Related Literature, n.d.) Background while
it is understood that educational reform efforts must take place within larger
systemic and sociological contexts, the heart of inquiry-based instruction lies
in the classroom. In reviewing the research literature on the effects of
inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, we focus on three
interrelated areas: 1) instructional materials; 2) instructional strategies;
and 3) professional development to prepare teachers to us enquiry-based
materials and/or strategies.” (A Randomized Study, 2007)

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