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Napoleon Bonaparte was a military general and the an emperor of France who is now considered one of the world’s greatest and one of the world’s most controversial military leaders. Napoleon revolutionized military organization, sponsored the Napoleonic Code, and also reorganized education and established the long-lived Napoleon code with the papacy. (“pbs.org”, nov 27, 2016) Napoleon’s many reformations left a lasting mark on the institutions of France and of much of western Europe. But his driving passion was the military expansion of French dominion, and though at his fall, he left France only a little larger than it had been at the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, he was almost universally admired during his lifetime. Napoleon is one of the greatest commanders in history, his campaigns and strategies of war are stilled studied in military schools across the globe worldwide. Napoleon’s political legacy has remained as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history. (“biography.com”, nov 27, 2016) “impossible is only a word to be found in the dictionary of the fools” ————————– Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1789 on the island of Corsica, France. He was the fourth child of Carlo Bonaparte, and his wife, Letizia Ramolino. He was sent to military school by his parents when he was only ten. When Napoleon was 24, he was promoted to brigadier general due to the brilliance of his commands during the Battle of Toulon. In October 1795, Royalist 13 Vendemiaire was put down by Napoleon resulting in the establishment of The Directory – France’s executive power between 1795 and 1799.Napoleon was given the command of France’s Army of Italy, as he began the Italian Campaign against Austria. He won two consecutive battles in 1796: The Battle of Lodi and the Battle of Arcole. The Austrians successfully escaped during the Battle of Lodi, but were convincingly defeated by the French Army in the Battle of Arcole, which was led by Napoleon. In 1797, Napoleon successfully won the battle of Rivoli, and returned to Paris as a Hero. (“biography.com, dec 2016”)In 1798, Napoleon decided on a policy to try and isolate Britain through blockading and attacking its commercial interests. He started the Egyptian campaign in 1798, and won the Battle of Shubra khit against the Mamelukes in Egypt. However, the British attacked and defeated the French in the Battle of the Nile, ultimately hastening a retreat from Egypt.. Despite the hardship faced in Egypt, Napoleon returned back home as a champion, and later elected as the French Consulate. (“pbs.org, oct 2013”)’ In 1803, to raise funds for war, France sold the North American Louisiana Territory to the United States for $150 million U.S dollars, known as the Louisiana Purchase.  In 1805, The British registered an important naval victory against the combined navies of France and Spain at the Battle of Trafalgar, which led Napoleon again  to scrap plans to invade Britain. Instead he looked upon Austria and Russia, and beat both militaries in the Battle of Austerlitz. Other victories quickly cane as well, allowing Napoleon to expand the French empire and pave the way for loyalists to his government to be settles in other countries and regions.In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia. The invasion of Russia turned out to be a  failure and the beginning of the end for Napoleon. Scores of soldiers in Napoleon’s Grand Army were killed and even more died of disease and the effects of the Russian winter during the long retreat back to France. Out of a fighting force of 600,000 men, only 15,000 healthy soldiers returned. Napoleon was finally defeated by the coalition powers of Austria, Prussia and Russia in 1814 at the Battle of Paris and exiled to the island of Elba. (“biography.com”, Dec, 2016)”I want from now on to live like a justice of the peace,” —– Napoleon Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, Napoleon escaped from Elba, in the brig Inconstant on 26 February 1815 with 700 men. Two days later, he landed on the French mainland at Golfe-Juan and started heading north. (“pbs.org”, oct 2013)Napoleon returned to France and on June 16, 1815. Napoleon gathered a new army and led the French troops into Belgium to defeat the Prussians; two days later he was defeated by the British, reinforced by Prussian fighters, at the Battle of Waterloo, which was fought in present day Belgium. It was a humiliating loss, and on June 22, 1815, Napoleon abdicated his powers. In an effort to prolong his dynasty he pushed to have his young son, Napoleon II, named emperor, but the coalition rejected the offer. (“britannica.com”, nov 2017)Soon After, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was exiled once again to the island of St Helena. Napoleon settled down to a life routine for 4 years, and it was here where he created all his legends and the famous books about himself and other heros. Napoleon died on May 5, 1821 due to illness. France’s first emperor had fallen. “On March 21, 1804, Napoleon instituted the Napoleonic Code” (“eudox.edu”, April 1804). This is a very important institution. Parts of it is still used in use around the world today. The Napoleonic Code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and stated that government jobs must be given to the most qualified. The terms of the code are the main basis for many other countries’ civil codes in Europe and North America. (“columbia.edu”, Aug, 2017) However, In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was “an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe or, instead, a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler”. (“pbs.org”, oct 2013) Many historians have concluded that he had grandiose foreign policy ambitions. The Continental powers as late as 1808 were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed .Critics argue Napoleon’s true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, “After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, his colonies lost”. (“U Nebraska Press”, dec 2013) cvvbxn”History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon.” —– Emperor, Military genius, Leader, revolutionist, NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

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