Travelling has repercussions that transcend beyond the host
city and has implications for the ecosystem as a whole. International
travelling could have pervasive health risks, subjected on the characteristics
of both the travel and the traveller. Travellers could be challenged with
severe health risks which might spring from regions that have poor quality
accommodation and where there is inadequate sanitation and hygiene. Springing
from that context, it is of much importance that efficient research base is built
around travelling and the health risks it poses so as to better equip the
countries in taking measures for countering those risks (Clift &
The traveller’s health is an area that deals with the risks,
individual and collective, caused by the movement of people and their
interaction with various environments. Travel health issues are being
increasingly addressed by government, airlines and shipping companies and
travel agencies. However, most of these actions are still restricted to pre-trip
vaccination recommendations and descriptions of risks posted on Internet pages.
According to traditional epidemiological and health
surveillance policies, the use of prevention measures in travellers is
justified, since such measures may reduce the risk of epidemics (Organization, 2016). There are different
profiles of travellers: tourists, professionals, migrants, refugees, soldiers
and volunteers. These travellers differentiate themselves as to the origin and
destinations of the trip, objectives during the trip and individual
characteristics. In this way, the traveller cannot be regarded as unity; it
must be recognized according to its diversity. Therefore, differentiated
strategies are needed to address this challenge in health systems.
Among the various profiles of travellers, it is remarkable growth
of the tourist. Around the world, there has been a significant increase in
tourist flow between 1997 and 2007, with more than 900 million tourists in
transit, according to the World Tourism Organization (Organization, 2016). In the same period, the number of
foreign tourists arriving in Brazil reached 5 million. Between 2001 and 2003
there was a decline in this movement, which can be explained by the terrorist
attacks in the United States and the severe acute respiratory syndrome that
spread to some Asian countries. Other public health emergencies may have
impacted tourism, such as avian influenza in 2005 and swine influenza in 2009 (Nakata &
In any case, tourists are becoming increasingly important in international
health surveillance issues.
Overview of the Research
The patterns of travel precisely influence the outbreaks of
certain health diseases. In the year 2007, Hollingsworth stated that the
international expansion is supposed to be increased by the frequent travellers
in case they became infected in the initial stage and an unwelcoming event
occurs promptly, otherwise. The routes adopted for travel, the certain networks
of aviation, the number of departing flights and their arrival at the landing
fields, the carried number of travellers, along with the magnitude of the
flying jet are significant deliberations in appraising the range of advance
epidemics, in accordance with the statement of Hufnagel (Hufnagel, Brockmann, & Geisel, 2004) .It was briefly
described for the certain sorts of infections or diseases that the constraints
in travel, specifically segregation of huge towns, will be an essential element
in the regulatory strategies of epidemic (Hufnagel, Brockmann, & Geisel, 2004).The current approach
to travel through air could accelerate the expansion of “influenza pandemic” in
contrast with the “past pandemics”. In the year 1985, Rvachev & Longini
highlighted in their study that there were more than hundred and sixty million
travellers reported to travel internationally through the “commercial flights”
during the period of “1968 to 1969”. Whereas that number of travellers
increased in the year 2012 up to “2.9 billion” of passengers through the “International
Civil Aviation Organization, 2012)” (Rvachev & Longini, 1985). The display of
epidemic with the data comprised of transportation through air in year 2000 for
a total number fifty two cities presented that there is a possibility for the
expansion of influenza simultaneously to the cities in “both hemispheres”,
consequent to the minimum turn of the seasons and limited timeframe for the
intervention of “public health” (Lawton & Page, 1997). Infections and
diseases are supposed to be spread in the close or neighbouring cities or areas
initially, however the distant cities or towns are supposed to be affected as
they have the higher volumes of air travel, “a pandemic initiating in Hong Kong can now spread
speedily to northern hemisphere cities 111 days earlier than in 1968 (Lawton & Page, 1997).Recognising
the domestic settings of environment and the associations by travel have the
possibility to offer estimations for the spread of diseases.
Background of the
Vibrant relations have been observed among the places and
microbes with the travellers. Passengers are considered to have such microbes
and their hereditary material and have the potential to perform several roles
in relation with these microbes. Wilson (2003) highlighted that the passengers
are possibly the victims, couriers, transmitters, sentinels and the processors
of the “microbial patterns”. On the contrary, arrival of passengers can have
certain influence on the “host population” by having interaction or
communication with the dynamic groups of individuals and microbes all over the
tour, while sharing the settings of environment consecutively. Passengers ought
to be deliberated as a loop, rather than only a destination or origin.
According to the statement of Wilson (2003), tours are ought to be linked with
the behaviours which drives towards the broadcast of “pathogens through blood”
and the exposure of the fluid of body. There is a possibility that the
passengers are involved in sexual activities, follow sports of extreme activity
along with the hiking in the “mountains of jungle” or the other activities that
are more expose towards the injuries, as they are not being risked to be
performed at home (Hobson & Dietrich, 1995).
Aims and Objective
RO1: To identify the
factors that concerns tourists regarding their health.
RO2: To find out the
impact of health related risks at infected tourism spots.
RO3: To interpret the
importance of appropriate vaccinations before the touring.
RQ1: What are the
factors that concerns tourists regarding their health?
RQ2: To what extent the
infected tourism spots creates a health related risks?
RQ3: How important it
is to take premedication before the tour?
The proposed research method would be qualitative in essence
whereby literature would be assessed that pertains to the travelling to regions
that is inflicted with pandemics. The literature would be gathered through
published reports, article, journal, books and internet Sources (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2007.). This examination
will be carried out by the secondary information survey on the strategy. The
exam strategy involves how the world collects, verifies, and separates
information (Creswell, 2011).Secondary examination is a rigorous
strategy with procedural and evaluation progress, such as basic research
technique. Secondary research provides information of methodological advantages
and can increase tourism through the study of new learning production (Bryman, Social Research Methods, 2001). The overall aim
of this strategy is the same as the goal of others, to add logical learning by
presenting another point of view; this only contradicts reliance on existing
information. Tourism analysts should explore excellent information that can be
accessed and consider the potential motivation to learn and give knowledge
about a wide range of tourism issues through the use of secondary information
research on information technology.
After demonstrating the data and then analysing the
information and discussion about the tourism and the health effects of infectious
diseases will go through the different methods theories for this research.
This research will use correct method to obtain more broad understanding. By emphasizing
about the the epistemological matters
and factors considering the relevance of the theory and this research (Creswell, 2011). And then it will be
identified that which of the method seems to be the most applicable for the
research process, and also the measuring tool and the instrument should be
selected for making the inner into pilot the research and the method of
sampling technique (Bryman & Bell, Business Research Methods, 2007). Moreover, the other
segment will go over and reasonably talk about the reliability, validity and
generalizability linked with the selected method.
By using these method it
will permit for the data gathering up to
the base of generalizable propositions that can be tested but also to collect
data, that is not mentioned in the
this current literature (Bryman
& Bell, Business Research Methods, 2007). However, this
research process will pursue the main purpose of this study and obtain aim and
objective. Investigating through the different aspect by using variations in
this online survey based on a questionnaire in order to find the involvement
from the both side researchers at the participant outlook and opinion (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2007.).
Significance of the
The term “traveller” in this two forms (traveller)
was used in addition to “tourist”, because it is a broader concept
than tourist. There is still no conceptual standard: many studies deal with
tourists without, however, using the term tourist. On the other hand, the
movement of people is not a specific feature of tourism, it also covers migrant
groups or other population groups such as gypsies, army, volunteers or
refugees. The following types of articles were excluded: articles dealing with
travellers other than tourists; articles dealing with animal health; conceptual
and review articles. Those aspects would be evaluated: study topic, location
(origin or destination of the trip), research occasion (before, during or after
the trip), type of tourist employed, methodology used, health problems studied
and actions and policies.
Travellers should be seen as an essential part of global
disease surveillance. Research and collected information can be used to alert
the global group to examples of near or isolated pathogens in different
locations. Illuminates the methodologies that can be used to control disease in
the creation of nations; and prepare to explore these areas and guide the care
of those who return. The most notable lesson in Ebola’s motivation was that the
world would react faster than ever before with whips. Regulatory and
preparatory efforts have significantly reduced the potential impact of Ebola on
the African economy, unlike the worst case scenario ( (Steffen &
This shows why all states, created and created, must make the need for more
resources for pandemic preparedness. The report focuses on the need to
establish a global office to finance the pandemic crisis that will enable the
world to respond more quickly and more appropriately to dangerous rings in the
future and maintain a strategic distance from the terrible and futile human and
monetary costs of the Ebola, plague (Laver, Wetzels, & Behrens,
In terms of the considering ethical issues,
make sure that one is not causing or harming the participant in any aspect such
as verbally discriminating with the age, religion, gender, ethnic group and
appearance (Bryman & Bell, Business Research Methods, 2007). Ensure prior the
interview that all required information will be provided to the interviewees so that they
will not have any issues while making the decision or signing consent form (Ritchie, Lewis, Nicholls, & Ormston, 2014)).å Insuring that the
information provided by the interviewee will not be given to the any third
party and data protection will be kept and will not be mislead in any chances (Ott & Longnecker, 2010).
The study will be
completed between 2018 and 2020, with the literature review taking place during
a large part of the first months, followed by the design and realization of the
field research in late 2018-early 2019. Analysis of the data will be completed
in the third year followed by interpretation of the main findings and
connection to the existing literature.
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