The basic idea of this paper is to
create a robotic arm which has the ability to perform multiple function one at
a time. The secondary objective behind our project is to make such project
available at cheaper cost.
A Robotic Arm is a type of
mechanical arm, having similar function to human arm with good flexibility for
industrial application. The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints
allowing either rotational motion or translational displacement. The links of
the manipulators can be considered to form a motion. The terminus of this
kinematic chain of the manipulator is called the clampers and it is similar to
The purpose of project to perform
various task using different modules, which includes –
Pick and drop
Robot is a derivative of Czech word ‘robota’ which
implies “forced laborer” then later a Russian comic writer Isaac Asimov conveyed
the word robotics. From there on various different developments are being
successfully done till date in the field of robotics in the form of teleported
manipulators, humanoids, micro robots etc. as the trend of the industry is moving
from the current state of automation to robotization. Thus, the robot
technology is advancing rapidly. Now a day the most commonly used robots in
industry is a robotic manipulator or a robotic arm. The end of the arm is
connected to the end-effectors. The end-effect or may be a tool and its fixture
or a clamper or any other device to do the work. The end-effect or is similar
to the human hand with or without fingers.
are increasingly being integrated into working tasks to replace humans
specially to perform the repetitive task. In general, robotics can be divided
into two areas, industrial and service robotics. International Federation of
Robotics (IFR) defines a service robot as a robot which
or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans
and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations. These robots are currently
in use in many fields of applications including office, military, hospital
operations, dangerous environment and agriculture. On the other hand it might
be difficult or harmful for humans to do some specific tasks like handling explosive
chemicals, defusing bombs or in worst case, to pick and place the bomb away
from civilian areas and for repeated pick and place action in industries.
Therefore, a robot can be replaced human to do work.
Main blocks of this system consists of SMPS used as power supply, ATMEGA328
controller, 3 stepper motors, 3 Easy drivers each connected to stepper motors for X, Y, Z axis movement respectively
From power supply we get two voltages i.e.
+5volt and +12 volt. 5volt which is required to ATMEGA328, Easy drivers whereas
+12volt supply is required to stepper motors. RESET is connected to5v supply through
10k ohms resistors to pull up the voltage thus it act as a pull up resistors
The Stepper motor NEMA17 is a four
phase, unipolar, permanent magnet stepper motor. It is a standard size,
200-steps-per-revolution, NEMA 17 (1.7 in. square footprint, 5 mm shaft
diameter), 12 V motor. This motor, like most stepper motors is a permanent
magnet motor. The Mosaic stepper is typical of common high resolution motors –
a full revolution requires 200 steps, while each step turns the shaft only 1.8°
for a full step, or 0.9° in half-stepping mode. This sized motor is commonly
used in household appliances, medical equipment, stage lighting devices, and in
various industrial control applications.
STEP 1: Start the
STEP 2: From serial
Interface execute G-Code command to provide translation to the robotic arm.
STEP 3: Define constant,
variable and directions for movement of robotic arm
STEP 4: If arm is not in
safe position stop the process
STEP 5: If arm is in the
safe position then select the axis of robotic arm to be moved
STEP 6: Get the value of
all the axis of arm in their respective buffer and run
STEP 7: If the target
position is reached stop the process else move to step 4
G-code in form of NC file (Numeric Code) from computer is interface with
controller using FTDI 232 module i.e. serial to USB converter. The output of
FTDI is given to pin no.2 and 3 i.e. RXD and TXD pins of ATMEGA328. The output
of ATMEGA328 is given to three Easy Drivers.
The Easydriver V4.3 is used to
drive the motor as the controller output power at its pin is not enough to
drive the motor. The Easy Driver V4.3 consists of 16 pins. Four pins
are used for 2 stepper motor coil i.e. coil A and coil B. Two pins for input
5volt supply i.e. VCC and GND. Three pins are used for STEP input, DIR; GND.
STEP is used for micro stepping. The DIR is direction input pin which will
rotate stepper in respective direction.
to the given dimensions Easy drivers or drilling machine will move. When
operation of motors is completed the dimensions on pc will roll of to again its
initial value i.e. set position or zero value.
the movement in required shape or direction can be observed at the clamper.
Also the clamper can be replaced by other modules in order to enable more
number of applications by the robotic arm for example 3D printing, Laser
engraving, cutting, etc.
Thus the movement in required shape or
direction can be observed at the clamper. Also the clamper can be replaced by
other modules in order to enable more number of applications by the robotic arm
for example the clamper can be replaced by an extruder assembly to enable 3D
printing application by the robotic arm. Similarly the clamper can be replaced
by the Laser engraver to enable the laser engraving application by the robotic
arm. Hence, such kind of multiple applications requiring high precision can be
done by this robotic arm. Hence the designed Robotic arm will be able to pick and place
objects with high precision. Also the
robotic arm will be so flexible that the clampers can be replaced and convert
the robotic arm into an complex machine like 3D printer, Laser engraver, etc.
The main purpose of the Robotic Arm is to
provide multitasking solution to increasing industrial need of performing
various operations using a single system. For emulating such a requirement it
was necessary to work on the various need and applications of industry and
thereby designing the structure of robotic arm according to it. The Robotic Arm
is designed to perform multitasks such as 3D printing, CNC, Laser engraving,
pick and place. The designing for Robotic Arm required studying GRBL controller
an open source tool for CNC.
Thus, in this work we
proposed to design a project named Robotic Arm for Multifunction which will
help out the industry with multitasking solutions
Medical – Pair of robotic
arm can be used for surgeries and even for burning the tissues affected by
cancer without effecting good tissues
Military – Robotic arm can
also be used in military applications for defusing bomb, tracking, etc.
Industry automation – Multiple
robotic arm placed on assembly line can be controlled remotely by application
of IOT to increase productivity
Further whole system can be
made so flexible that it can be controlled even by an mobile phone over
Bluetooth or wifi link