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are in a global crisis; the world is dying more rapidly of Chronic Diseases
than ever before. Cardiovascular disease is among one of the leading killers
across the world, and it is actually preventable. Although, Three-quarters of
deaths due to cardiovascular diseases could be prevented with minimal changes
in lifestyle, including increased daily physical activity. Physical activity
also plays an important role in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases
by reducing the impact of the disease, slowing its progress and preventing
recurrence. (Alves, 2016) Heart disease is still considered a disease that
affects men, although every year since 1984, it has affected more women than
men in the United States. In 2004, approximately 500,000 women died of
cardiovascular disease (CVD), making it the leading cause of death for women in
this country. (Folta, 2008) Yet, Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the
leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. According
to the American Heart Association (AHA), by the year 2030, the prevalence of
cardiovascular disease is expected to increase by 9.9%, and the prevalence of
heart failure and stroke are expected to increase by approximately 25%.
(Agarwal, 2012)

the benefits of regular activity, only 31% of adults in the United States
report achieving the recommended amounts of physical activity (i.e., 30 minutes
of moderate-intensity activity 5 or more days per week or 20 minutes of
vigorous-intensity activity 3 or more days per week), and 38% report no
leisure-time regular physical activity (Schoenborn, 1998) But most people in
the US, do not receive the amount of physical activity needed to maintain a
healthy lifestyle.  Inactivity or
a sedentary lifestyle is associated with increased cardiovascular events and
premature death. (Held, 2012) Sedentary behavior is measured by screen time, and
has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health, increased obesity,
diabetes, cancer, and early death. (Wijndaele, 2011) Exercise isn’t just
excellent for reducing the risks of CVD, but regular physical
activity helps reduce several cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, metabolic
syndrome, and
diabetes. Among
patients with recognized coronary disease, regular physical activity has also
been found to help improve pain-free activity, prevent heart attacks, and result in
diminished death rates. (Agarwal, 2012)

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            Even with this knowledge readily available to the general
public, as well as being a well-known fact, people still do not receive the
proper amount of physical activity or proper nutrition that one needs to live a
heart health life. Activity levels are even lower among people with disability;
for example, Healthy People 2010 reports that 56% of
people with disability reported no leisure-time physical activity, compared
with 36% of people without disability, and rates of involvement in regular
moderate and brisk physical activity are also lower for people with disability
(US Department of Health, 2010)


the usual cardiovascular risk factors, diet poses a particular challenge for
research. Total calorie intake increases as countries develop. With regard to
nutrition, you need to lower your intake of complex carbohydrates, increase
plant based food, and have an all-around well balanced diet to further prevent
risk factors of CVD. (Amani, 2010) Having
proper nutrition immediately aids your body’s overall health and wellness, by
decreasing fat and increasing metabolism. Lowering weight alone, lowers your
chances for getting CVD.

activity among adults without disability are well-known and consistent across
many studies; they include sex, age, income, race, education, obesity, and
general health status. There has been less research on the correlates of
physical activity for adults with disability. Disability has often been
included as one item on a list of barriers to physical activity, often
addressed within an item asking about injury or disability or as a barrier or link,
such as arthritis, obesity, and asthma. (Boslaugh, 2006) There have also been
studies on activity levels of people with medical conditions that can be
disabling, such as arthritis (CDC, 1997) These conditions increase your chance
of being overweight, having lower muscle mass, and increasing your risk of CVD.
Having an inactive lifestyle greatly increases your chance of having CVD by
lowering you VO2 max output, cardiac output, weaker muscles and bones, lower
mineral content, and increase in fat content. Having more fat alone, causes
fatty deposits on your heart and blood vessels. This decreases your blood flow
and puts you at risk for clogged arteries or heart attack. Once a person has a
myocardial infarction, they then become at an even higher risk for gaining CVD.


terms ‘physical activity’ and ‘exercise’ are often used interchangeably in the
literature. However, it is suggested that the two terms indicate two different
concepts. ‘Physical activity’ refers to any bodily movement produced by skeletal
muscles that results in a use of energy, and includes a broad range of
occupational, leisure and daily activities. ‘Exercise’ instead refers to
planned or structured physical activity, performed for a reason, which can be
aerobic exercise, resistance training or combined aerobic and resistance
training. (Mann, 2014)


can not only maintain the cardiorespiratory health, but it can keep your body
strong and healthy. Muscle mass can be increased by training at an intensity
corresponding to 60% to 85% of the individual’s maximum strength capacity.
Based on the findings the recommended amount of resistance training is 3 to 4 times
weekly. (Mayer, 2011) On the other hand, health benefits of adequate
physical activities like walking, swimming, cycling, or stair climbing are familiar.
Regular exercise has been shown to reduce type 2 diabetes, some cancers, falls,
osteoporotic fractures, and depression. There are improvements in cognitive function,
better quality of life, and decrease mortality rates, as well as improvements
in weight management and physical functioning. (Agarwal, 2012) Clinical
exercise testing can be used to measure the presence or severity of the disease,
to measure functional capacity and to enhance the effectiveness of exercise
interventions and proper medical therapies. One of the most common reasons for
clinical exercise testing is cardiovascular or pulmonary disease (Anderson,

is a primary, secondary, and tertiary preventer of disease are as follows: 1)
Primary prevention (direct treatment of cause to prevent disease occurrence) is
voluntary prevention of physical inactivity or treatment of physical inactivity
with physical activity; 2) Secondary treatment eliminating one cause (physical
inactivity) of existing hypertension by removing physical inactivity is
treatment of existing hypertension with physical activity; and 3) Tertiary
prevention with physical activity is cardiac rehabilitation where exercise
benefits do not reverse the anatomical pathology from myocardial infarction. (Booth, 2012)


are three types of exercise; Cardio, Resistance, and Mixed training. These
types are very effective on reducing CVD. Mild to moderate resistance
training may be achieved by weight lifting or other resistance exercises
involving the major muscle groups. They recommend that 8–10 exercises be
performed on two non-consecutive days of the week, with 8–12 repetitions of
each exercise. These provide an effective method for improving muscular
strength and endurance, diminishing the rate-pressure product and improving
coronary risk factors. (Pollock, 2000) A fully cardiovascular workout
recommends that you retain 150 minutes of moderate exercise a week to obtain
optimal health. A mixed methods program would consist of a
12-week training program with combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for
30 min, five days/week resulted in enhancements in the cardiovascular risk
profile in overweight and obese participants compared to no exercise. From our
observations, combination exercise gave greater benefits for weight loss, fat
loss and cardio-respiratory fitness than aerobic and resistance training
methods. Combination exercise training should be recommended for overweight and
obese adults in National Physical Activity Guidelines. (Ho, 2012)

CVD has risk factors that are
mostly caused by inactivity. Regular and adequate levels of physical activity
in adults can reduce the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke,
diabetes, and can help maintain a healthy weight. Yoga, and ancient practice
from India that incorporates physical, mental, and spiritual elements, may be
an effective form of physical activity.  (Chu,
n.d.) Yoga can ease your mind and soul, and can really benefit your health to
increase your body’s muscle and align your chi.

While exercising
can benefit the reduced effects of CVD, it can also combat the effects of
aging. Aging skeletal muscle experiences fiber loss more severely in
the high threshold Type II fast twitch motor units. An age related decrease in
muscle cells by age 70 is specific to Type II fibers. Thus, anaerobic capacity
and high intensity physical activity requiring hard and fast movements is
diminished, contributing to impaired performance in tasks required for activities
of daily living (ADL) and increased fall risk in seniors. Advanced ages reduce
speed of propagation of action potentials and muscle contraction. This age
related limitations can be mitigated by exercise and physical activity.
Numerous studies demonstrate resistance training can increase muscle mass and
strength in seniors. (Sumachi, 2013)

conclusion, I feel that exercise can greatly improve your overall health and
reduce your risks for CVD. Although there are many different exercise types out
there, there are certain steps you can take to ensure you are getting the most
of your workout. The American College of Sports Medicine states
that, “improvement will be similar for activities performed at a lower
intensity-longer duration compared with higher intensity-shorter duration if
the total energy cost of activities is similar.” (Donovan, 2005) You can work on your
flexibility and range of motion to better improve your posture and overall
body’s strength to benefit your workout the most. Since 

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